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17.06.11

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1.Translation as getting the meaning across languages & cultures.
Scholars consider the translation to be the 5th type of speech activity because of its specific character. The translation as a kind of speech activity is different because its not natural as the participants of communication know neither languages nor cultures. But there is a person who acts as a mediator who makes communication possible.
The theory of translation deals with the problem of untranslatability.   The term tr-n is most misleading. Scholars use it to denote the process of written tr-n, or sometimes it stands for written or oral tr-n. Sometimes rendition is used as general, tr-n written, interpretation - oral. Many people say  that tr-n is impossible as it is.
1) no 2 lan-ges have the same phonology; 2) no 2 la-ges have the same syntax; 3) no 2 lan-ges have the same vocabulary; 4) no 2 lan-ges have the same literary history; 5) no 2 lan-ges have the same prosody.
To translate we shd analyse ST and SC:
SL text -> analysis -> transfer -> restructuring - > assembling -> TL text
We take things apart, restructure them according to the laws of TL. Then we assemble things and get TL text. The effect of communication depends on the quality of tr-n.
Tr-n is more about: people than words, jobs people do and the way they see their world  than registers, creative imagination than rule-governed text analysis.
To produce a good tr-n we must understand the process of tr-n. Tr-n is a complex / cumulative process which involves a host of activities related to language, writing, linguistics and culture. 3 major activities: 1) transfer of data from SL to TL; 2) synchro-analysis of text and tr-n and researches of subject matters; 3) continuous self-development and learning
Tr-n as communication involves the transfer of a message from a SL to TL. Text linguistics (the way the parts of text are organized and related to one another in order to form a meaningful whole) is useful for the analysis of the tr-n process and the transfer of meaning from one l-ge to another. The process of tr-n results in creating a text in TL and from this perspective a text as a notion shd be defined. To define we shd consider several standards of textuality: 1) cohesion (all the parts shd be connected and this makes the text itself a self-contained unit); 2) coherence (not a single part contradicts any other part); 3) intentionally(every text may be regarded as a communicative block that answers the authors intention); 4) acceptability (the wording is responsible for the form of the text which must be understood by every reader); 5) informativity (information); 6) situationality (communicative situation that is described in the text: characters, authors intension to impress the reader); 7)intertextuality (the relationship b/w the text youre tr-ting and other text on a similar topic that youve translated already or will tr-te); 8) intratextuality (every text can be regarded as a set of communicative blocks which are related to one another).
Words may have secondary meanings, & these are dependent on the context. Second lng will always have an equivalent of the primary meaning, but the translator should be careful as the secondary meaning can not match at all. E.g. take Russian word (the interaction of the meanings parents & ancestors).
Its the case of metonymy, which appears in many lngs, but not every lng will have exact equivalent in the other.
* The kettle is boiling (but its the water!)
* to get lost at the exam
Lexical items may also reflect attitudes, emotions in addition to purely factual information.
*Inquisitive vs. curious ( / )
As to collocations that belong to the same group every lexical item will tend to occur in the lng with a particular range of other lexical items. The meaning is practically the same but different words are combined to indicate this meaning. Each word has different collocational possibilities & a collocational range of equivalent words between lngs will not be identical especially in secondary meanings.
*Tailor / dressmaker /seamstress
*Handsome man / beautiful woman
*A pack of wolves / a school of fish / a flack of birds
Sometimes the preposition may change the meaning of the whole structure.
*Anxious about / anxious for Its not enough for the translator to learn isolated words & phrases. He should know words in contexts (collocations). Only 4% of lng units are phraseological. Collocation challenges are far greater in number. The translator should learn the most frequently used patterns.  E.g. colour+with+emotion *Red with anger *Blue with cold
BUT when we speak about collocations we should assume that they do not coincide in different lngs:
= poor progress = regular features Collocations in different lngs have different structures use different prepositons.
Confident of himself= Jumped with joy= Sometimes a shade of meaning may present a certain challenge. We should do our best to prevent a riot. I should do my best to prevent my sister from dating this man. Sometimes every shade of meaning may have a collocation of its own. He started smoking. - He started to smoke. He is a free man. He is free of money.  Im mad about the movie. Im mad of his tone.
( You have an idea & want to express it & so, we have a purpose. Then the desire to express it arises. The process of communication depends upon modes of discourse (description, narration, exposition, argumentation, 1) It also depends upon the qualities of participants (their level of competence, level of motivation, attitude to what is being spoken of, social status etc.); & conditions of communication (time, place, direct or indirect interaction, official or casual etc).

2. Equivalence, precision & adequacy in translation.
All of them are used when we try to render the same meaning factual and emotional in another language. If we cant find equivalents we produce an adequate text, which fulfils the same function. Eq-ce can be said to exist only between factors equally present in SL and TL texts. Those TL factors requested that are not contained in the SL text can hardly be said to be equivalent, because theres no textual basis of comparison. Here adequacy is the better term. Eq-ce in meaning cant be taken as a satisfactory criterion for a correct translation. We cant even accept that equivalence in meaning is provided by synonymy, since it is commonly accepted that there are no complete synonyms in a language. Father=/= daddy=/= papa Eq-ce on the different levels is different. What is being carried onto the TL text is the united semantic-pragmatic function of the S text. It means that the original text is being reconstructed in a new semantic-pragmatic entity, redesigned within the textual universe of the TL community. Precision depends upon the type of the text. For example, scientific texts require more precision.
E. Nida Argued theres 2 diff. types of equivalence:
1) Formal = formal correspondence - focuses attention on the message itself in both form and content. Consists of a TL item which represents the closest equivalent of the SL word or phrase. There is no always FE b/w lang pairs. But FE may be used wherever possible if the tr-n aims at achieving formal rather than dynamic eq-ce. As FE distorts the gram-l and stylistic patterns of TL and distorts the message so the recipient of the message shd try hard to understand what is said or written -> the 3-rd l-ge is invented.
2) Dynamic- tr-n principle according to which a tr-or seeks to tr-te the meaning of the original and he does in such a way that the wording will trigger the same impact on the Target culture audience as the original wording did on SC audience. Thus often the form of the original text is changed. Nida says dynamic eq-ce is > important than mere correct communication of info. N. tr-ted the Bible- sh have the same impact as the original text. E.g. vanity of vanities= .
Jakobson Eq-ce in difference invented a theory concerning conceptual differences between langs, introduced the notion of equivalence in difference. Jakobsons approach a semiotic one (the tr-or has to recode the ST first & only then he has to transmit the text into an equivalent message for the Tculture) . He suggests 3 kinds of tr-n: 1. intralingual (within one lang, i.e. rewording or paraphrase) - cases of ambiguity, a difference in experience that doesnt allow a person to understand the message. To explain rephrase the message, say the same in other words; 2. interlingual (between 2 langs) - the transfer of info b\w 2 lang-s. the tr-or makes use of synonyms in order to get the ST message across =>in an interlingual tr-n theres no full equivalence between code units (tr-n involves 2 equivalent messages in 2 different codes);  3. intersemiotic (between sign systems) - sign-lang-ge (-) as a means of translating ideas for deaf & numb people. From a gram-l p of v lang-s can differ from one another to a greater or lesser extent, but this doesnt mean that the tr-n may face the problem of not finding the necessary equivalent. So in this case the tr-or resorts to loan tr-ns (borrow), neologisms, semantic shifts  (gives new shades of meaning to the word already known, depends on the context), circumlocution - , . => Similarity between Vinay
linguistic tr-n is not possible or linguistic approach is not possible, tr-or can rely on other procedures, such as loan tr-ns, neologisms & the like. Both theories recognize the limitation of linguistic approach. Both theories argue that a tr-n can never be impossible since therere several methods that a tr-or can choose.
John Catford - the introduction of types & shifts of tr-n. 3 criteria of tr-n: 1. the extent of tr-n: full tr-n vs partial tr-n 2. the gram-l rank at which the tr-n eq-ce is established => rank-bound tr-n vs unbounded tr-n. 3. Levels of l-ge involved in tr-n => Total tr-n vs restricted tr-n. 2-nd criterion deals with formal correspondence & textual eq-ce. Formal correspondence- rank-bounded tr-n- the tr-or looks for an eq-t in the TL for each word in the SL; even each morpheme. In unbound tr-n we can find additional eq-ces at s-ce, clause and other levels.  Textual eq-ce - TL text or some part of it is observed on a particular occasion to be eq-ce of a given SL text or its portion. To estimate the validity of tr-n -> the instrument of commutation => he asks competent bi-lingual informant. Tr-n-shifts- departures from formal correspondence in the process of going from  SL to TL. (if formal correspondence is impossible!) 2 types of tr-n shifts: 1. level shifts- the SL item at 1 linguistic level has a TL eq-t at different level. Ive done it (the rank is Grammar) (lexics). 2. category shifts- divided into 4 types: 1. structure-shifts- involve a gram-l change b\w the structure of the ST & that of TT. 2.Class-shifts-  SL item is translated with TL item which belongs to different gram-l class (Im hungry = ) 3.Unit-shifts-  involve changes in rank (a sent-ce may be tr-ted as a phrase; structure as as single word) 4.Intra-system shifts - SL an TL have corresponding items, but when tr-n selects a non-corresponding item in the TL system (1001 nights = 1001 ). Catford was criticized: his theory is simplification, we shd also take into consideration other factors: textual, cultural & situational aspects. Juliane House - semantic & pragmatic eq-ce ; ST & T text shd match 1 another in function=>possible to characterize the function of text by determining the situational dimensions=>every text should be placed within a particular  situation which has to be correctly identified by the tr-or => tr-n text should not only match its ST in function but employ equivalent situational dimensional means to achieve that function. Concept of overt & covert tr-ns: 1. overt  tr-n- TT audience is not directly addressed 2. covert tr-n- production of text which in functionally equivalent to the ST. House theory is more flexible than Catfords=>she gives more authentic examples, uses complete texts. This functional theory is of great importance. Mona Baker - eq-ce : gram-l, textual, pragmatic & several others. The notion of eq-ce in relation to tr-n process putting together linguistic & communicative approach=> distinguishes between eq-ce  that can appear on word-level & above word-level. Eq-ce at word-level - 1-st element to be taken into consideration: word can be assigned different meanings in l-ges & might be regarded as more complex unit or morpheme => pay attention to: number, gender & tense. Gram-l eq-ce when  - tr shd add\omit info in the TT because of the lack of gram-l devices in TL: number, tense, aspect, voice, person, gender. Textual eq-ce  - helps to produce a cohesive text for the TC audience  in a specific context. Pragmatic eq-ce tr-r shd recreate the authors intension in authors culture so that the TC reader  could understand it clearly.

3.Direct & indirect methods in translation.
Each method corresponds to a certain level of complexity or to higher degree of complexity. They can be used on their own or be combined with one or more of the others. The modern scholars divide tr-n into 2 groups: direct and oblique ().
The cases when direct literal tr-n is possible; 1) the message is based either on parallel categories in which we can speak about structural parallelism (if-clause in SL can be tr-ted by if-clause in TL); 2) the case when the concept in the TL corresponds to the concept in the SL. Kinds: 1) Borrowing. May have a stylistic effect, to introduce the flavour of the SL or SC into a tr-n (dacha, oblast, ruble, vodka, babushka). Borrowings may become a part of the voc stock of the TL (, ). Tr-n shd be interested in modern borrowings, even personal ones, bcos theyre not registered in dictionaries. Mind false-ami ( he had a Spanish beard).  2) Calque a l-ge borrows an expression and then translates litereary each element ( Palace of Culture). Structural calque a new construction introduced in the l-ge (Are you OK? ?).  3) Literal tr-n (word-for-word) the direct transfer of the SL text into a grammatically and idiomatically appropriate TL text. To observe the adherence to the linguistic pattern of the TL (the train starts at 10-30 10-30). Its possible bcos of common metalinguistis concepts.
If after trying the 3 methods above translator regards literal translation unacceptable, he must turn to the method of oblique translation.
Oblique tr-n is used if direct tr-n: 1) gives another m-g; 2) has no m-g; 3) is structurally impossible; 4) does not have a corresponding expression within the cultural experience of the TL; 5) has a corresponding expression, but not within the sane register. Kinds: 1) Transposition replacement of one word class with another without changing the m-g of the message (It rains (V) a lot  - (N)). From the stylistic p of v the basic and the transposed expression dont necessarily have the same value. 2) Modulation - a variation of the form of the message obtained by a change in the p of v. When although a literal or even transposed tr-n is possible and gram-ly correct, but considered to be unsuitable, unidiomatic or awkward in the TL. (Shake hands ). A whole text can be modulated. A case of modulation is antonymic tr-n (keep off the grass ). Modulation can be free (unique in senses, not yet fixed in sanction of usage) and fixed (in a dictionary). 3) Equivalence  - the phenomena that are used in different l-ges to carry the same m-g, and in this respect the same function. Its the pivot that makes tr-n right. The classical example - reaction to certain physical actions (! ouch!; ! oops!). Some of them are not very well known (cocadududu !; bow-waw -!). Most equivalents are fixed and belong to a phraseological stock (idioms, clichés, proverbs, nominal and adjectival phrases) (birds of feather flock together ). 4) Adaptation when the type of situation being referred to, when we consider the SL, is unknown in the TLCulture. Frequently used in tr-n of books and movie titles (A square peg in a round hole - ). Some tr-r are against it, bcos they say, it violates tr-n. but sometimes its the only way out if you dont want to use all sorts of footnotes and explanations.

4. Types of translation.

Translation is the term for written translation. If one does it orally, the term is interpretation.
Literary and technical. Literary is not for everybody. You should be as talented as a writer. Technical is extremely broad. There is an overlap when it comes to such areas as social sciences, political subject and so on.
Characteristic feature of technical is specialized terminology. Technical texts have practically similar structures. They usually develop two modes of speech: exposition and argumentation. Description and narration are used to support the first two.
1) John Drydens classification: metaphrase a type of tr-n which renders       exactly every word of the original; paraphrase we retain the value of the original phrase by means of limiting or expanding definitions, the gist is there, but we dont retain the spirit; imitation presupposes that no phrase, sent, etc can be produced in another lang => prepare an imitation, i.e. a whole that is composed of parts noticeably different of the original ones, but the imagery, spirit, etc are preserved; adaptation gives another vision of the text from the perspective of the TL culture; retelling retell the content, but dont preserve the structure or the wording; interpretation not only explanation, but also tr-rs ideas, attitudes given in the text or in the footnotes.
2) Kazakovas classification: complete (=all but retelling) & abridged (=selective or searching tr-n). Abridged preserves the essence, disregarding some less important parts (compression). Another ex. functional rearrange the parts of the ST to make valid inf-n come first. W-for-w (c) is necessary when dealing with scientific texts and texts of legal documents. Semantic (c) based on rendering the contextual m-g of the text. Communicative (c) to produce an adequate impression, some parts are rearranged and restructured.
3) Oral tr-n: consecutive the translating starts after the original speech or some part of it (court tr-n, medical, business negotiations, teleconferences, escort int-n, OPI); simultaneous - the interpreter is supposed to be able to give his tr-n while the speaker is uttering the original message; sight tr-n & document comparison; signing tr-n the lang of deaf and dumb people.

5. Translation techniques.
From gram. perspective:
1) Transposition change in the order of ling elements (words, clauses, s-ces). (He trembled as he looked up , ).
2) Replacement can effect all types of ling units: a) word-form (plural by singular) -> novel about lives ; (past by present) -> he said he knew , . b) parts of speech (N->V) its our hope that , ; early-riser; (Adj->N) Brazilian property ; (Comparative Adj->N) better living conditions ; ) s-ce elements changing the syntactic function of a word in a s-ce. The subject in E s-ce is often replaced by corresponding secondary element (objective adverbial modifier) in R (He was met by his sister ; The bed wasnt slept this night). d) s-ce types replacement of simple s-ce by complex one & visa versa in E -> infinitive, gerund, participle, in R we tr-te with a help of clause (S -> Complex) I want you to , . Subtypes of the replacement on the level of s-ce types: unification (replacement of two simple s-ces by a compound) vs division (vise versa);
e) types of syntactic relations (subordination -> coordination, tr-ting E->R) - He had a new father whose picture was enclosed , ; tr-ting coordinate s-ce E->R we cant use 2, 3 conjunctions in R.
3) Addition to compensate words omitted in SL or gr forms in TL (Gun-license ; modern weapon ).
4) Omission to avoid redundancy (when where the phone was ).
From lexical perspective:
1) concretization frequent device in tr-n E→R, because therere w of wide sem value, m-g is vague => in context the m-g shd be determined. Ex: He came in sight of the large, a long low, frowning thing of red brick. - , , ,
2) generalization for stylistic reasons, in rendering non-equivalents; in R more general words, in E more specified. Ex: hands\arms =
3) antonymic tr-n (gr & lex) substitution of an affirmative construction for a negative one or vv.
Ex: Keep the child out of the sun.
4) metonymic tr-n substitution of related concepts.Ex: The advantages of sound -
5) paraphrasing rendering of m-g of some idiomatic phrase of SL by a phrase in the TL consisting of non-correlated lex units Ex: In for a penny, in for a pound .
6) periphrasis when theres no definite equivalent in TL; effective when we deal with cultural phenomena which represent concepts that are diff. Ex: drugstore Transliteration rendering SL letters by means of TL equiv. Ex: names of newspapers, magazines Washington Post
Transcription written representation in TL of SL sounds Ex: guardian Descriptive tr-n. Ex: To feature a story .

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6. Classification of vocabulary from the viewpoint of translation challenges.
1) w. that cant be found even in the most recent big E-R & R-E dic-ries. Usually coined words, neologisms - they are built according to the normal mode of word-building and people who coin these words use well-known affixes and the m-g oh the w seems simple enough, but if we rely on w that have the same root to find the tr-n of neologism, we fail because it has a specific m-g. They can be:1.new words (beatnik)2.old words that changed their m-g (gay).3.loan words (menu).4.coinages (pedestrionize).5.nonce-word (fluddle very big puddle).They charact-zed by high frequency in tech.texts, their m-g clear from the context.. Tr-or sh make a glossary because neolog have a tendency to grow. Ex: iff (if and only if) , (result of compression)/configure , , , , ,etc.
2) False friends usually international w that have a phonetic, gram resemblanse and possess semantic commonality but still dont mean the same thing in SL and TL.Tr-or usually makes mistakes (sh never judge m-g of international w by look up at it). Ex: original , figure , subject . The same meaning the pseudo international words differ in meaning from language to language either completely or partially.1.Genuine international words: electronics, algebra, etc 2.Completely pseudo international words: complexion, commutator, etc 3.Partially pseudo international words: elevator ( )
3) w with broad sem range. They are charact-zed by high frequency of occurrence, have lots of eq-nts.+with the technology and advance many m-gs come to use. Even knowing the context, tr-or at loss what eq-nt to choose. Ex: meaningful (35 m-gs) , , , , , , .
4) w with low sem range, low frequency of occurrence. These specific m-gs havent been yet registered.Ex: chore , , .
5) w that are styl-ly colored and have certain affective(emotional) connotation. Even in tech text we can find style-ly colored w Ex: excellent, remarkable. We can find metaphors, epithets. Problem is connected with cultural tradition, stylistic tr-n is very diff. R  tech texts never reader-friendly, syntactically complex, full of bulky s-ces, metaphors are hardly found. E tech texts reader-friendly. The best way is to adapt the text to cultural tradition of TL.
When we come to non-equivalents we should determine what we really mean by non-equivalents. In fact these are the words of the SL which either have no equivalents in the TL or no equivalent denotator in the TL culture. There are 2 groups:
1. Realia-words (denote objects, features of national life, customs, habits, etc)
2. Words that have no equivalents in the TL for some linguistic reason. (Conservationist, readership, glimpse)
There are 3 ways of rendering their meanings.
1. Direct borrowing (transliteration or transcription) mayor, know how. But we shouldnt use such borrowings very often.
2. Free-word combinations. They are used to translate all sots of realia, by explaining their meanings. They serve to explain the cultural peculiarities in which the realia is used.
*- an old witch from Russian fairy-tales
3. Neologisms. They may be old words, which acquire new meaning, or new words: coined or loan words. Neologisms are not registered in dictionaries. We analyze the structure and the context to understand the meaning of the word.
*Peacenik one who fights for peace. The suffix shows that the word is coined. -nik is                                                                    popular since 1960-s (sputnik)
*To cross the house to betray the interests of the party you belong to

7. Words with built-in judgment. Political correctness. Taboo words.

The double task of l-ge l-ge is instrument for expressing facts and emotions. Thus words may not be only informative, they maybe affective at the same time. Many words may have affective connotations. They give us an aura of personal feelings. Affective task of l-ge can be achived by^ tone (loud, soft), rhythm, alliteration. Informative connot-n report l-ge, socially agreed. Affective connot-n ex.pig not general definition, but express your own feelings.
W with built-in j.Some words may have both the informative and affective connotation simultaneously words applying to occupations of which one disapproves (pick-pocket, racketeer, prostitute); words applying to believes in philosophies of which one disapproves(radical, atteist). They are called loaded words on the one hand communicate a fact, on the other full of affective connotation and strongly shape peoples thought. Names that are loaded tend to influence behavior toward those to whom they are applied. Tr-or sh find some appropriate substitute for such words drunkard (problem drinker, substance abuser), idiot (mentally retarded, develop mentally disabled), bumbs (homeless, displaced people). To get the latest terms, tr-or sh read a lot. The glossary of euphemisms sh be revised (words that are correct today, may not tomorrow). Tr-or sh pay attention on stereotypes and trends that charact-zed modern usage.This is a problem of polit correctness.
Taboo. In every l-ge there are words that denote certain unmentionables phenomena that we dont want to mention in polite society. These words have strong affective conn-n. in E and R these are words dealing with excretion(.) and sex. Instead of words denoting object, process, place euphemism sh be used. Ex:making love sexual union; rest room, powder room toilet; 19 century to retire to go to bed. Money is another subject about which communication is inhabited (In E and Am culture sums may be mentioned but it is considered a bad taste to ask people about financial affairs, creditors send bills but never mention money they call it oversight).Death is another topic. People are afraid of words having to do with death (to die to pass away, to depart, to go west). Words connected with religion words represent sth evil and holy (God/gosh/; dont pronounce the name of fallen angel because it represents sth terrible).A tr-or sh know that every kind of substitute is culturally bound and sh find appropriate substitute. Conclusion: we can single out 1. taboo topics(die-pass away).2.military voc-ry (bombing air support).3.political speech (short person vertically challenged). To get the latest terms, tr-or sh read a lot. The glossary of euphemisms sh be revised (words that are correct today, may not tomorrow). Tr-or sh pay attention on stereotypes and trends that charact-zed modern usage.

8. Lexical transformations and the peculiarities of their application.
There are 5 types of lex transf-ns (tr-n techniques): 1. Concretization is the most frequent device in tr-n from E into R because there is a large groups of E words of wide semantic range (thing, point, affair, nice, fine, to say, to go, to get). The m-g is relatively vague, they can be used in diff contexts, the valency is very broad. Ex: He came in sight of lodge, a long, frowning thing of red brick : , ). Stimes a micro-context (s-ce) is of no use, we need a macro-context (text) to make things clear. Abstract nouns are often specified in tr-n if there is no correlated abstract word in R. Ex: Englands records in medical care -. We rely on concret-n because correlated generalized words in R and in E have diff usage. Ex: he didnt know what to do with is legs/feet. Stimes the usage of word can be stylistically bound. Ex: listen, child / she loved her child . 2. Generalization the reverse process of concretiz-n. There is a tendency in R we use more general w, in E we specify ( finger, toe). Stimes we generalize for stylistic reason, stimes in rendering non-eq-nt (summary court ).
3. Antonymic tr-n a kind of gr and lex tranf-n which substitutes an affirmative construction for negative or v.v., accompanied by lex.changes. Ex: we must be serious sometimes . 4. Metonymic tr-n lex trans-n based on the substitution of related concepts. Ex: the advantages of sound - , while waiting for a bus . 5. Paraphrasing rendering of the m-g of some phrase in the SL by a phrase in the TL consisting of non-correlated lex units. Ex: good riddance .
Referential m-g (Its also called logical or denotative. It has direct reference to things or phenomena of reality, naming abstract notions & processes as well) causes lex transf-ns when we deal with: Diff visions of objects of reality & diff usage. Every lang possesses its own system of images & they depend upon associations. Ex: Hot milk with the skin on it ; Blue , . Diff semantic structure of a w in TL & SL. Ex: mellow 1) , , ; 2) ;3) , ; 4) , ; 5) , ; 6) . Differences in the semantic structure are one of the primary causes of lex transf-ns. Even w, which seem to have practically the same m-g in SL & TL cant be considered identical. Semantic correlation b/w langs isnt to be interpreted as semantic identity. Often similar m-gs of R & E w differ in some components. Its often reflected in dictionaries. Diff valency & collocability. W are used in context & the aptness of w to appear in diff combinations can be described as valency or collocability. Every lang has its syntagmatic norms & patterns of valency. They depend largely upon vision. Collocated words tend to institute a cliché, which differ in diff langs. Ex: heavy sea ; bad mistake . When we speak about valency the main problem the tr-r has to face is the diff-ce in collocability b/w lang. Ex: trains run ;a fly stands ; it was the worst earthquake . The key w of any collocation is usually preserved, but the collocated w is rendered by a w that is diff in its referential m-g in accordance with the valency that is typical of the TL. Ex: Labor party protest followed sharply on the Tory deal with Spain. - Diff collocability often causes lex & gram transf-ns, although each component may have its equivalent in the TL. Ex: The most controversial Prime Minister - . Stimes collocations rely upon prepositions, which may clarify the m-g of the whole structure. Ex: anxious about smth -; anxious for smth -. Its not enough for the tr-r to learn isolated words. He should learn the collocations. Only 4% of lang units are phraseological & they should be learned by heart. Every tr-r should know all typical collocations. If we know the m-g of a w its not enough, because every shade of m-g may have its own collocation. Ex: to be free of money ; to be free of promises .

9. The language of affective communication.
There exists the l-ge of reports where the main distinctive features are objectivity & unemotionality & there is also the lang which is characterized by emotionality, informativity  & the  attitude of the speaker to what he is speaking about.  Emotivity manifests itself by means of various stylistic devices. Words have affective connotations in addition to their informative value. This accounts for the fact that statements of this kind Ive been waiting ages for you, You are an hour late. But affective connotations account for the fact that such expressions make sense. An accurancy & an appropriacy of the lang gives us an idea that affective connotations can be most accurate to describe certain facts. We believe that we can communicate not only the m-g of the word but the feeling that we experience when we address for ex the moon as the lady or a piece of cheese or a silver ship, a piece of angry candy.Words & phrases that are used as stylistic devices usually employed by authors as means to enhance a certain effect that the speaker or writer wants to produce upon the listener or reader. Metaphor which is based upon comparison & analogy & which for the most part conveys not only a certain m-g but it conveys an image. It usually means, the metaphor is based upon comparison, uses comparison as a kind of analogy to bring together several meanings, notions belonging to different classes. The mechanism is analogy. Analogies usually based upon a set of associations that people have when they juxtapose notions belonging to different classes. This happens when we call a moon a piece of cheese, when we call a person a world wind. The problem that is presented for translators.1) The l-ge of metaphors & the like devices is very like inaccurate. When people use metaphors you can never know what they really mean. In diff cultures diff notions may be compared & may produce diff impressions upon people. There are things that we should remember. They concern metaphors sister which is simile. Simile is more polite. In many cases a translator should use similes instead of metaphors. We should always remember that metaphors and similes are a kind of embroidery for tr-rs. It may be in some parts disregarded. If you disregard metaphor or simile nothing will happen as they add nothing to the words utility. Sometimes you can substitute a m or s for a m or s in the TL that is based upon another image. The only thing that we have to remember as that the function should be presented. When we are engaged in a translation of fiction, in this case metaphor & simile convey a very important m-g because they may serve as direct expression of peoples attitudes, of evaluations wherever we have strong feelings to express. The simile usually points out  the similarity in our feelings toward certain objects & notions. The simile is something of a compromise b/w the direct expression of feelings & the report but its closer to the direct expression of feelings. Slang is usually based upon metaphor or simile.( He is as phony as a 3 dollar bill). Metaphors, similes & to a certain extent personifications are among the most useful communicative devices people have, because these devices have quick affective power, they often make  unnecessary the inventing of new words. They are commonly used for the purpose of describing new things & new feelings. Verbs, not only nouns, can have a certain set of metaphorical meanings just describing actions & processes.

Sometimes we think that dead metaphors (ex. the theory is built-up) are easy to translate but its not so. The image may be different in different cultures. Ex. shake hands.
When metaphors are successful,  when they become popular, they die. Allusions. Its a very affective device. Its used very often in lit-re & speech. Every translator sh be very well-read cos he sh know what this or that allusion really means. Allusions are devided into several groups. Some allusions are common to people that inhabit this or that area. Some allusions are common to people who adhere to this or that religion. In this case allusions come from the bible. People allude the bible. Its necessary to read it. Every allusion is based upon several connotations that overlap & it is a task of a tr-r to see where connotations overlap.

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10. Technical texts and terminology management.
Tech texts rely on terminology. Tr-n of terms depends upon a sphere the tech text belongs to. As to the structure several groups: simple (resistance, oxygen); complex (turbogenerator); word comb-ns (direct current); letter terms (X-rays); international (Velocity). Terms are mostly monosemantic (calorie, equator), but can be polysemantic. To make term monosem we shd give a context => precision. Sources. Most terms are w borrowed or coined on the basis of 2 lang: Latin and Greek. Many terms penetrated the common core voc (ozone, hormone). Misleading terms (2 meanings) (jacket , ). Some w can be used in diff spheres with diff m-g (pocket (aviation); (military); (electrotechology)). Some are translated word-for-word (super power system ). Terms that present difficulty, because a number of w in 1 lang corresponds only to 1 w in another (switch , , ). We shd not learn terms, we shd learn communicative situations. Style of tech texts is characterized by precision, clarity and economy. In E future is used to present repetitive actions or nowadays problems. Passive constructions are used, especially in medicine. In R active is preferable. Stimes SL contains situations that are alien to TL, we shd substitute them (dozen - ). Tech texts are written in 2 main modes of speech: exposition (the recipient has no idea of the notion & author helps to create a familiar notion) & argumentation (the recipient knows the notion, author shows that the recipients ideas are wrong). Ideas are developed within the frames of 7 forms of logical semantic relations: 1)reason-result (author explains what causes result); 2)means-result (what means were most effective and why, and then the result is given); 3) purpose-means (explains what he wants to achieve & why, then how he intends to achieve it); 4) concession-contra expectation (writes contra arguments); 5) grounds-conclusion (gives arguments to prove his viewpoint); 6) condition-consequence (if then); 7) grounds - exhortation (fault within every argumentation, then author comes to the opposite point). There are 2 approaches to the stratification of tech voc: 1. Terms. General scientific & tech voc. Common core voc. 2. Terms. Non-terms. Both classifications are rather vague. Dict-s used by people are based on the fiction & do not register the tech m-g of a w. The voc used in tech texts depends for the most part on the situation: Elocutionary - when there are one to one equivalents in the SL & in the TL.Ex: a similar tool exists in both cultures (pliers, pincers). Perlocutionary - Here the message is a challenge. There is no one to one equivalent in both cultures. The tr-r should give an explanation that will accompany the required term. Ex: smart (board  ). If we divide non-terms into common core voc & general scientific voc we find out that there are some w, which dont belong to any cat. The non-terms layer comprises w that function to describe scientific & tech phenomena & acquire therefore a specific m-g acc to the situation.
This voc can be classified into 3 substrata, acc to their informative importance & to their function: Nuclear voc - is used to describe the process & the objects of investigation, is used in texts dealing with fundamental scientific research & applying research as well. Application, development, analysis, background etc. Words of everyday use - are used in special situations, dealing with investigation, its result, the implementation of the results & the dissemination. Many of these w are synonyms. They represent diff parts of speech (functional & notional words). They acquire quantitative & qualitative features depending on the nature of the scientific or tech text. They are very diff to tr-te as they seem to be familiar, but the m-g is rather vague. Thats why they do t let themselves easily to tr-n. History of temperature ; Radiation-time-pulse history . Functional w - have diff m-gs & for the most part they do not coincide with the m-gs of words that are usually used in R The style of a R tech text is complex. E tech texts contain metaphors, similes, and other tropes (tradition is that a man shd mentally relax). We shd make the text reader-friendly. Tech texts need editing. R bulky s-ces, full of participial constructions and clauses shd be restructured. Jokes & metaphors in E may be neglected. But we shd never edit legal & medical texts. The tr-r should know the area & the terminology the specialist uses. He should also be aware of the TL terminology, the usage of every term.

11. Grammar competence of a translator. Grammatical transformations.
Gram is not only form it is also m-g. Some scholars think that gram doesnt present any problems & the way an utterance is shaped gram-ly is none of tr-rs business, because his domain is m-g. But it is not true, because rendition of the utterance depends on the form as well. We should rely not only on the m-g of the ws but on the relations among them, which is what gram takes care of. So the lex m-g of words goes hand in hand with the gram m-g. Stimes the tr-r neglects the gram m-g, not bcos he is careless, he gets accustomed to the idea gram phenomena in most cases are not translated exactly, e. g. articles. Give me a Dickens to read. - . Here the article is not only the form; its also the m-g. Gram form is a matter of equivalence & we may say that it is as important as the lexicon or voc. The elements of the gram structure, such as affixes, inflexions, derivatives, etc serve to carry gram m-gs, so the rendering of such m-gs is an important problem of tr-n equivalence. Gram presents a lot of challenges. Gram is a part of the bigger system, which every lang possesses. Unlike voc gram can be easily classified into cats. But there is a certain discrepancy b/w norm & usage & there are elements of gram structure that presents challenges for the tr-r. When we cant find equivalents we cant speak about adequate tr-n. We can speak of partial equivalents, which is that the m-gs expressed by grammatical forms though seemingly identical coincide only in part of their m-g & differ in other parts. Gram equivalents: 1. Cat of number. Ex: Oats ; money , Measles . 2. Cat of tense. Both E & R distinguish such forms of the predicate ws as present, past & future & their gram m-gs are identical. Ex: He said that he lived in Moscow , (sequence of tenses). 3. Cat of gender. R distinguishes among 3 manifestation of G: masculine, feminine & neutral, which are formally expressed in the following ways: Demonstrative pronouns (, , ), Endings of verbs (, ), Inflexion of the N (_, , ), Pronominal substitution (- , - ). In E the same 3 G are distinguished, but there is only one way to express the distinction: Pronominal substitution: boy he; girl - she. Theres no such thing as agreement in G or diff-ce in inflexional endings in E. Consequently the cat-ry of G is expressed by personal, possessive, reflexive pronouns. The thing is that G is not marked in E, which leads to the importance of context: Student (-). When we translate fables, where personification often takes place, such things become important: Fly: E masculine, R feminine. Grammatical universals. These cats are found in all lang. These are so-called deep gram cats, that are rather semantic than formal, such as object, process, quality, relation, actor, goal of action, instrument, cause effect etc. The formal ways in which these deep structures are manifested are numerous & they differ widely. Moreover, it should be born in mind, that the content, which in one lang may be described gram, may be expressed lex in another lang. Ex: ? . What did he achieve? Nothing or almost nothing. There are cases when gram m-gs are not rendered in tr-n at all. That means that this gram form is not used freely according to is own m-g.
But when its used, it is predetermined by merely linguistic factors such as syntactic constructions, rules of agreement, government & in these cases we speak of a bound use of gram form as opposed to the free use. On the whole the choice of gram equivalent is determined by several factors: The m-g inherent in the gram form itself: / table tables. The lex character of the w or w group used in this / that form: Other philosophies (the use of plural form here is impossible because the N itself isnt used in plural in R). Factor of style. There are cases when the stylistic diff-ces b/w 2 lang arent in favor using this or those gram phenomena. Both E & R have the passive voice construction, but in R I is a characteristic feature of the bookish style. Though we can theoretically translate a s-ce written in colloquial style using the passive construction. Actually we cant do that, bcos  the tr-n will sound rather awkward: John was met by his brother. Both E & R make use of historical present, but only in English this form is used in newspaper headlines: Prominent scientist dies. . Frequency of use. Rare words or rare forms of words may also constitute  serious obstacles to a proper communication load. R uses both subordinate clauses and verbal adverbs to express adverbial relations. In many cases the tr-n is rather heavy and sounds a bit unnatural if we dont know what every lang prefers. E prefers subordination whereas R prefers coordinate structures. Syntax shows mentality. Mentality of a nation is in syntax.
Gram transf-ns: 1) Transposition change in the order of ling elements (words, clauses, s-ces). (He trembled as he looked up , ). 2) Replacement can effect all types of ling units: a) word-form (plural by singular) -> novel about lives ; (past by present) -> he said he knew , . b) parts of speech (N->V) its our hope that , ; early-riser; (Adj->N) Brazilian property ; (Comparative Adj->N) better living conditions ; ) s-ce elements changing the syntactic function of a word in a s-ce. The subject in E s-ce is often replaced by corresponding secondary element (objective adverbial modifier) in R (He was met by his sister ; The bed wasnt slept this night). d) s-ce types replacement of simple s-ce by complex one & visa versa in E -> infinitive, gerund, participle, in R we tr-te with a help of clause (S -> Complex) I want you to , . Subtypes of the replacement on the level of s-ce types: unification (replacement of two simple s-ces by a compound) vs division (v.v.); e) types of syntactic relations (subordination -> coordination, tr-ting E->R) - He had a new father whose picture was enclosed , ; tr-ting coordinate s-ce E->R we cant use 2, 3 conj in R. 3) Addition to compensate words omitted in SL or gr forms in TL (Gun-license ; modern weapon ). 4) Omission to avoid redundancy (when where the phone was ).

12.The paragraph as a text unit. Subordination and coordination of paragraph structure as viewed from a translator's perspective.
The cumulative s-ce allows us to go to ling. units larger than a sen-ce, e.g. a paragraph. The struc-re of a paragr. is like that of a cumul. s-ce. Paragraph is a relevant tr-n unit -> finally makes a text. When we deal with paragr., the law is: 1) shifting direction of movement; 2) shifting level of generality. Therere 2 arrangements of levels of generality: coordination (the same level) & subordination (different levels). The cumul. s-ce may serve as a model for writing an effective paragraph.
1) 1-level coord. paragr. (expanded paragr.): all the s-ces are related to 1 word (first, topic s-ce). They are interdependent, but each s-ce characterizes the topic s-ce from diff. perspectives (constellation). Sameness of structure - connects, brings s-ces together. (structural principle)
*1. In the names of justice, good sportsmanship and general honesty, it is simply essential that information reported in the public press, in meetings or committees or lunch tables be double-checked.
2. In engineering and industry this is a matter of profits or bankruptcy.
2. In medicine it is a matter of life and death.
2. In public affairs and in private life it is a matter of integrity or corruption.
2. In the laboratory it is taken for as a necessary and elementary part of scientific behavior.
2) 2-level coord. paragr.: the 2-nd s-ce is a kind of digression that makes the point clear before enumerating arguments, we dont use the same structure, we use logical one. (contextual principle).
3) Multilevel subord. Paragr.: we have to avoid sameness of expression, every s-ce in a given succession depends on the previous ones. This dependence is not only logical, but structural as well (key words, substitutions, pronouns).
* 1. The humanities, whatever is meant by that baffling term, seem to the musing observer to offer a succession of paradoxes.
2. The word itself is a modern invention, coming to us from the 19th century.
3. One might reasonably infer that, given so recent a coinage, we must know what we      mean by it.
4. In fact, however, we dont quite know what we mean by it and this is the 1st paradox.
5. We believe in something we cannot delimit.
6. Probably, the only safe working definition is that: you know horses cows are different.
7. You know the sciences the humanities are different.
8. They are what you have left in the college  curriculum when you extract the sciences natural, physical and social.
Mixed paragraph
This kind of arrangement is a bit faculty. The 2nd sentence can exist without the 1st one. Subordination & coordination represent a special kind of ties, gluing the sentences together. But the next example will show that its not enough & there are special connectives. We may use all sorts of special phrases (two by two; the really critical problems solved, theyetc.)
*  We expect John to return from his journey today. When I looked out of the window half an hour ago I saw the lights of his flat are on. Of course it might have been Paul who was there I know he has the key. But since I am not sure that Paul is in town, John had possibly arrived.
We have primary & secondary connectors that make the text one whole: 1) elements that are present in previous s-ces; 2) information that is employed in previous s-ces (called by-product) Whichs connected with redundancy only the necessary redundancy that establishes connections shd be preserved, in other cases it shd be avoided, its possible due to structural peculiarities  of the l-ge (s-ces with identical beginnings can be combined  1->2). Sometimes l-ge economy is termed as l-ge minimalism avoiding verbosity. Rules: - analyze the original & find whether r-cy exists at all; - find if this kind of r-cy is used for style purpose;  - find the purpose, decide effective or not.
The translation can be done without a thorough analysis of a passage. But then we should use a skeleton. The skeleton of the text may be done both in the SL & in the TL. For an experienced translator the SL is more preferable, because its not the skeleton he is going to reproduce, but rearranged text in the TL.
Sometimes to give a good tr-n, we shd rearrange the structure of the paragraph (last s-ce in E -> first in R). Analyze -> Skeletonize -> Rearrange.
To rearrange the text 2 basic tools: compression (dont eliminate anything) - 1.making phrases do the work of clauses and s-ces ( shortly on our arrival).2.telescoping 2 or more s-ces into 1( . - Id rather stay at home than wet).3.using 1 word instead of w-g ( undaunted).4.using wordless link (semicolon) & suppression (elimination of parts of the text) 1.r-cy eliminated.2.examples of the original can be suppressed, grouped.3.suppress anything unimportant and immaterial.4.suppress figures of speech, ornaments

13.Text analysis from a translator's perspective. Redundancy as a translation
problem.

The process of tr-n results in creating a text in TL and from this perspective a text as a notion shd be defined. To define we shd consider several standards of textuality: 1) cohesion (all the parts shd be connected and this makes the text itself a self-contained unit); 2) coherence (not a single part contradicts any other part); 3) intentionally(every text may be regarded as a communicative block that answers the authors intention); 4) acceptability (the wording is responsible for the form of the text which must be understood by every reader); 5) informativity (information); 6) situationality (communicative situation that is described in the text: characters, authors intension to impress the reader); 7)intertextuality (the relationship b/w the text youre tr-ting and other text on a similar topic that youve translated already or will tr-te); 8) intratextuality (every text can be regarded as a set of communicative blocks which are related to one another).
We have primary & secondary connectors that make the text one whole: 1) elements that are present in previous s-ces; 2) information that is employed in previous s-ces (called by-product) Whichs connected with redundancy only the necessary redundancy that establishes connections shd be preserved, in other cases it shd be avoided, its possible due to structural peculiarities  of the l-ge (s-ces with identical beginnings can be combined  1->2). Sometimes l-ge economy is termed as l-ge minimalism avoiding verbosity. Rules: - analyze the original & find whether r-cy exists at all; - find if this kind of r-cy is used for style purpose (redundancy may be preserved for stylistic purposes. The Queen Of Spears. . => we should preserve redundancy. I love you with a passionate love); - find the purpose, decide effective or not.
Sometimes to give a good tr-n, we shd rearrange the structure of the paragraph (last s-ce in E -> first in R). Analyze -> Skeletonize -> Rearrange. Analysis helps the tr-or to acquire the necessary proficiency. It is written tr-n that brings you to oral tr-n. We sh first specialize in wr. tr-n = remove redundancy, compress the info. The skeleton of the passage may be done in  SL and  TL. If it is sequential tr-n it is preferable to do the skeleton in TL.
To rearrange the text 2 basic tools: compression (dont eliminate anything) - 1.making phrases do the work of clauses and s-ces ( shortly on our arrival).2.telescoping 2 or more s-ces into 1( . - Id rather stay at home than wet).3.using 1 word instead of w-g ( undaunted).4.using wordless link (semicolon) & suppression (elimination of parts of the text) 1.r-cy eliminated.2.examples of the original can be suppressed, grouped.3.suppress anything unimportant and immaterial.4.suppress figures of speech, ornaments.

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14.Oral vs. written translation. Consecutive and simultaneous translation.
1) Speech: is time-bound, dynamic & transient. Part of an interaction, both participants are present; speaker has a particular addressee in mind. Writing: is space-bound, static and permanent. Result of a situation, writer is distant from reader.
2) S: spontaneity & speed make it diff to engage in complex advance planning. Intonation & pause divide long utterances into manageable chunks, but s-ce boundaries are unclear. W: allows repeated reading & close analysis, promotes compact expression.
3) S: participants are in face to face interaction, can rely on such extraling clues as facial expression and gesture to aid m-g (feedback) W: lack of visual contact => cant rely on context to make their m-g clear, no immediate feedback.
4) S: many w & constructions. Lengthy coord s-ces are normal & of considerable complexity. Slang and gr informality may be frowned upon. W: some w & constr are char-cs of W such as multiple instances of subord-n in the same s-ce, synt patterns & multi-page s-ces found in legal documents. Certain items are never spoken.
5) S: is very suited to social functions (to expr social rel-ships, personal opinion, etc). W: is very suited to the recording of facts and communication of ideas.
6) S: Theres an opportunity to rethink an utterance while it is in progress. Errors once spoken cant be withdrawn. W: Errors are perceived inadequacies. Interruptions are invisible in the final product.
7) S: Unique features include most of the prosody. Nuances of intonation, contrasts of loudness, tempo, rhythm, etc cant be written down with much efficiency. W: unique features include pages, lines, capitalizations, etc. only few graphic conventions relate to prosody (question marks, underlining for emphasis). Genres (timetables, graphs, etc) cant be read aloud efficiently.
Consecutive most common form, covers a wide variety of situations. Interpreter waits for the speaker to finish the sentence and then renders it orally into TL. You have to preserve the style. Some people cant work with interpreters (make pauses in wrong places; dont know what a s-ce group is) -> you shd take notes. Difficult type of tr-n, you shd have good nervous system. Main thing dont stop.
Court translating - tr-r translates ST into the language of the court. Justice depends upon your interpretation. Precision and accuracy are very important.
Medical tr-n when the patient doesnt speak the l-ge the doctor uses. Its important to be precise. For this 2 kinds if tr-ting the interpreter has to be certificated.
Business negotiations where the 2 parts sit around the table and the interpreter helps them to communicate. The interpreter shd be objective. He shd be a good psychologist.
Tele conferences difficult because you dont see the recipient.   
Escort interpreting the easiest form, seldom involves technical language. The atmosphere is friendly. People feel for you and dont mind your stumble () & so on.
Phone interpreter (OPI over the phone interpreting) - people feel uneasy while talking on the phone -> special attitude. Even more difficult because you cant see any of the speakers.
Simultaneous interpreter. Its done without pauses, at the same rate as the speaker talks, this requires a great deal of training and experience. One shd be able to speak fluently and at a great speed. Good reaction and intuition are necessary. One shd guess the meaning of words from the context, be able to switch from one lang-ge into the other. Nobody pays any attention to the style. He should know many clichés. (They make speech more idiomatic & help to think over sth)
Sight tr-n and document comparison. Therere often written documents that have to be interpreted on the spot for immediate use. Quality is the main criterion of success.  You have to get prepared beforehand. But very often documents arent available. So the tr-r on duty has to provide a good tr-n of the text.

15. Oral interpretation. Its main characteristics.
Closely related to tr-n oral interpretation.
Many tr-rs work as interpreters or vise versa. The 2 terms are often confused they represent 2 distinct ways of working with lang-ge.
Oral int-n is best suited for those who possess the following skills: 1) exceptional articulation; 2) a high comfort level speaking in front of the audience; 3) public speech experience; 4) complete ease in both l-ges; 5) the ability to retain () 1 or more points while listening to new information and then reproduce the entire message accurately in the TL; 6) the ability to summarize the main points of sth that is being said; 7) experience in 1 or more technical areas.
Interpretation requirements, depending upon the type of information one is engaged in, can range from simple, general conversation to highly technical discussions.
General categories: 1) consecutive (the speaker finishes his sentence the interpreter renders it); 2) simultaneous; 3) sight tr-n ( ); 4) signing ().
Interpretation can take place in the following environments: - escort; - meeting; - phone; - courtroom; - conference.
If you are to translate a general conversation of informal character, you are to be prepared to all sorts of deviations & to make illogical speech logical. Use short sentences to make your speech compressed & unambiguous. The job of an interpreter is to single out the meaning out of the succession of words & formulate the utterance concisely.
Because participants are usually in face-to-face interaction, they can rely on such an extra linguistic clause as facial expression or gestures to add meaning or to get feed back.
Informal speech presents lots of challenges for the interpreter. Typical grammatical constructions cannot be avoided & should be dealt with. Obscene words should be avoided & replaced by neutral phrases. Slang is quite an obstacle. It should be avoided in oral speech, because it may create a wrong impression on your interlocutor.
If the interpretation is official it should be remembered that the situation of rethinking, saying things again is absolutely impossible. If youve made a mistake dont correct it.
Every interpreter should to some degree possess the qualities of an actor. He should be able to discover what tone is meant. Sometimes such things as gestures can help.

16. Topic-comment relationship as a translation challenge.
Topic-comment relationship is one of the most urgent issues in linguistics. It is connected with transposition as a translation device from the grammatical perspective. Transpositions a change in the order of linguistic elements: clauses & sentences, words, phrases most often this is due to the necessity preserving what is called functional sentence perspective. Namely the division of the sentence into 2 main parts: Theme [the known info] & Rheme.[the new info] = the topic & the comment. In Russian this division of the sentences is usually expressed by word-order. In Russian what is already known or supposed to be known the Th is placed at the beginning of the sentence. Then the Rh the info that is communicated for the 1-st time & this is semantically most important => is placed at the end of the sentence. In English the word-order is fixed but there are some ways of expressing TH/RH Ex: indefinite article/definite/zero article (with plural forms, uncountable nouns). in Russian the word-order in such cases sh be reversed -  A boy came in . The boy came in . Cigarettes were passed after lunch .With a complex sentence a similar tendency is observed. In Russian the 1-st place is occupied by that part of the sentence which must logically precede the 2-nd. Whereas in English the position of both clauses is in most cases govern by purely syntactical rules: the main clause usually precedes the subordinate one. This very fact calls for the change in the order of clauses in tr-n. He trembled as he looked up. , . There is no diff-ce b/w Past Simple and Perfect in R we have to use transposition of clauses.Means of expressing Rh: 1.inversion-deviation from fixed word-order to single out the logical subject of the sent-ce:In the centre of the room stood a glass table.2.particle-only, even-every particle has its lex-l meaning-expresses a shade of meaning: Even he came.3.analytical constructions (it is, that,)-Its the emotion that matters.4.indefinite article-The door opened and a man and a woman entered.5.intonation-sometimes its the only way of expressing Rh by means of logical or phrasal stress;6.passive voice-This device was invented by him.Means of expressing Th:1.definite article-the contrast between 2 art-s can be used for that purpose.2.a loose parenthesis ( )-by the propositional phrase as for:As for the others, great numbers of them moved. Conclusion: Th need not necessarily be sth known in advance. There are sent-ces in which Th is sth mentioned for the 1 time but still is Th. It is sth about which a statement is to be made. Th is here a starting point of the sent-ce, not its conclusion.Every sent-ce can be divided into 2 clear-cut parts, but in many cases there are intermediate elements not belonging to this or that part. This problem requires further investigation in linguistics.

17. Laws of cumulation from a translator's perspective.
The text develops in time, but it modifies () what has been said before. The cumulative sent-ce depends for its effect on the so-called free modifiers. These are details that make the sent-ce richly textured. A free modifier can be expressed by an absolute construction, a participial phrase, a cluster of nouns or adj, as well as by a clause (attributive/adverbial). The main clause is regarded as the backbone (), which holds the free modifiers together and thus helps to create the image desired. A cumulative sent can be represented as an abstract model, where each free modifier is placed on this or that level of generality, the main clause serving as the first level. Such a sentence creates a vivid image due to the gradual accumulation of details. Besides the levels of predication, it is important to consider its direction, or movement, or modification. If all the free modifiers come after the nuclear sent or at least after the word modified we deal with backward modification. If the free modifiers precede the word modified- forward modification. Both kinds of modification may occur within one cumulative sent. To make a good transl-start with the nuclear sent. See if you need transformations. Then decide on the means of rendering the free modifiers in the sent. Sometimes you neednt resort to any basic transformations (dealing with participle constructions, as if )Adverb+adj structures may have to be transformed (darkly pale-dark and pale). We sometimes have to break a long sent into 2 or more shorter ones. Absolute constr-s are often rendered by finite sent. The modification-that is the position of free modifiers-may have to be changed.  Addition and direction of modification (forward and backward). The next sentence has a flowing and ebbing movement: She came among them behind the man, gaunt in the gray shapeless garment and the sunbonnet, wearing stained canvas gymnasium shoes . . .
Addition and direction of modification are a structural principle. We can use for addition such structures as noun clusters, verb clusters, adjective clusters, absolute constructions, prepositional phrases. Each of these structures present a challenge for a translator.
The sentence develops by using clusters, all of which are placed in layers: 1-sentence, which presents a characterized object; 1-a main clause; 2, 3, 4 - characteristics of the object
1 Joads lips stretched tight over his long teeth for a moment, and; 1 he licked his lips; 2 like a dog (PP); 3 two licks (NC); 4 one in each direction from the middle (NC).
There are two main clauses (1,1). The 1st layer is very much peculiar as it has 2 clauses and there should be some sort of redundancy, which is seldom used in Russian:
1) , . 2) , , .
1) Is a static picture, 2) is a dynamic picture. The challenge here is that we change hierarchy.
Syntax is a cultural phenomenon as it reflects mentality, nature.
+ reduced predicates: R-adverbial participial constr, participial constr, infinitive str, verbal nouns, genitive case str, in Engl-complex object (I want him to come), absolute constr, particip constr, infinitive str, stone wall constr, hyphenated str (love-hate rel), causative constr (I had my car made) -development of reduced predicates.
Are used for slowing down the time of narration, to create suspense (, ), to depict the states of emotional exaltation, to give several points of view.

18. Translation of poetry: a matter of rendering form and content.
Poetry is: 1 the art or work of a poet. 2 the poetic works of a given author. 3 a piece of lit-re written in meter, verse. Tr-or has to resort to the analysis of word-painting making a picture with words, but its diff because word is abstract. Imagery words & sentences that produce clear vivid mental pictures. In literature the term refers to the use of figurative lang. There are 2 types of figurative meaning: the effect, which changes the structure of lang without affecting its meaning (rhyme) & the effect that does affect the meaning (metaphor, epithet, simile etc). E.g. translating Haikus:1-bad example, as imagery not preserved: Summer Night. A lightning flash; Between the forest trees I have seen water. The choice of the words forest and between is wrong. We sh use behind instead of between. In the house. At the butterflies The caged bird gazes, envying-Just watch its eyes!2-good example, imagery is preserved. Verse-a particular arrangement of words in reference to their sounds: close(sonnet, haiku) and open(doesnt follow a strict metrical pattern). The sounds of the syllables may be regarded:-Iby themselves: Ia as to quality or height of tone; Ib as to quantity or length of time; Ic as to accent or stress of voice-IIby their relation to other sounds: IIa a relation of succession= rhythm IIb a relation of consonance= rhyme
Ia quality or height of tone-the position of the notes()-up or down on the scale. Indicates various degrees of shrillness or gravity of sounds.  Ib quantity of the sound or syllable-length of time we dwell upon it. In E. quantity depends on the length of vowels. In syllabotonic verses each line has the same number of syllables. Ic accent- stress which is thrown on pronunciation of a syllable. Accent falls on long syllables; has no connection with height of a sound. It is a defect in versification to let the accent fall on an insignificant word-conjunction/preposition. IIa rhythm-a harmonious succession of sounds. R. makes sound meaningful (E.g.Kipling describes movements of soldiers: boots, boots, boots walking over Africa).There are 3 manifestations of rhythm.:1-syllable- a collection of letters formed by one impulse of the breath. Every s. sh. have at least 1 vowel. 2-foot () a succession of 2 or more syllables, one of which must be stressed, assumed as the basis of the line. Its a very rare case, but feet may be monosyllabic. Feet that are commonly used in versif-n are usually dissyllabic or trisyllabic. Dissylables:1.iambus (_-) return 2. trochee (-_) respite 3. spondee (--) sunbeam Trisyllables: 1.dactyl merrily (-_ _) 2. amphibrach (_-_) receiving 3. anapest (_ _ -) colonnade 3- line  - a succession or combination of feet, generally containing a fixed number of syllables.10 syllables-the line is feminine 11 s-s- the line is masculine. IIb rhyme- repetition done in a strong position, is directed by the rhythm. In all verse regulated by accent the consonance (similarity of sound) in syllables gives greater force to the accents, esp. to the last accents in the line. We combine rhyme with alliteration. A. can be substituted by rhythm when tr-ing to preserve the effect. Types of rhyme: 1.Terminal: single rhyme, double r, triple r- standard rhyme of E. poetry-the resemblance of sound in the last syllable or syllables of successive or proximate lines. In Single R.:1 the last vowel sounds must be identical and the preceding consonants must be different: If she seem not fair to me-How care I how fair she be 2 when consonants follow the last vowels, these consonants must be identical in sound: what though his mighty soul his grief contains-he meditates revenge who least complains 3 rhyming syllables must have the strong accent. Weak terminations such as ty,ly, ing sh. not be made to bear the weight of the single rhyme. In Double Rhyme: only the first in each pair of chiming (.)syllables must be accented: E.g.The meeting points the sacred hair dissever;From the fair head for ever and ever. In Triple Rhyme: the last 2 syllables are unaccented, follow the reverberations (). 2. Middle Rhyme: the rhyme which occurs within a single line: To the fame of your name. The Blank verse- is not only unrhymed meter, but as distinct from the free verse is based on regular meter- usually Iambic Pentameter (Shakespeares plays).

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