Types, kinds and individuality of texts as viewed from a translator’s perspective.
Texts are usually written in 2 modes of speech-
These modes of speech are the most complex one. The purpose of these 2 modes of speech are different, because in the first case they bring home to the reader the essence of a new motion.
In the case of argumentation it’s a purpose of the writer to ruin the readers holds, to give a new point of view, proving its validity.
The other 2 modes of speech-description and narration are also used in kind of frames and determine the text. They are not numerous. They are very effective- means-aim, means&means postulate or statement and proof of the validity of the given statement, conses contra expectation (you explain what is being considered and why)
So these phrames determine the ways ideas run in the text. Then technical text, we should first characterize their semantic structures, their peculiarities and the way they use terms.
Nida distinguishes between expressive, informative and imperative function of the text. He ends that the reader will often be totally reliant on the context how to determine a particular speakers experience include treier inner world, a world of his conscesness. The classification of the text classification falls into major contextual types:argumentative, expository, instructional, description and narration. The purpose is to produce an impression upon the reader or listener. We have to see what his point of view is. It gives us the choice of wording.
Textual types narrative, persuasive, technical, and expository are the text types • describe the animal's habitat in your report Descriptive writing is usually used to help a reader and writer develop an aspect of their work, eg. to create a particular mood, atmosphere or describe a place so that the reader can create vivid pictures of characters, places, objects etc.
Features Description is a style of writing which can be useful for a variety of purposes: • to engage a reader's attention • to create characters • to set a mood or create an atmosphere • to bring writing to life.
Language • aims to show rather than tell the reader what something/someone is like • relies on precisely chosen vocabulary with carefully chosen adjectives and adverbs. • is focused and concentrates only on the aspects that add something to the main purpose of the description. • sensory description - what is heard, seen, smelt, felt, tasted. Precise use of adjectives, similes, metaphors to create images/pictures in the mind e.g. their noses were met with the acrid smell of rotting flesh. • strong development of the experience that "puts the reader there" focuses on key details, powerful verbs,precise nouns and important adjectives.
Based on perception in time. Narration is the telling of a story; the succession of events is given in chronological order.
Purpose The main purpose of narrative is to entertain, to gain and hold a readers' interest. However narratives can also be written to teach or inform, to change attitudes / social opinions e.g. soap operas and television dramas that are used to raise topical issues. Narratives sequence people/characters in time and place but differ from recounts in that through the sequencing, the stories set up one or more problems, which must eventually find a way to be resolved. The common structure or basic plan of narrative text is known as the "story grammar." Although there are numerous variations of the story grammar, the typical elements are: • Setting--when and where the story occurs. • Characters--the most important people or characters in the story. • Initiating event--an action or occurrence that establishes a problem and/or goal. • Conflict/goal--the focal point around which the whole story is organized. • Events--one or more attempts by the main character(s) to achieve the goal or solve the problem. • Resolution--the outcome of the attempts to achieve the goal or solve the problem. • Theme--the main idea or moral of the story. The graphic representation of these story grammar elements is called a story map. The exact form and complexity of a map depends, of course, upon the unique structure of each narrative and the personal preference of the teacher constructing the map.
Types of Narrative There are many types of narrative. They can be imaginary, factual or a combination of both. They may include fairy stories, mysteries, science fiction, romances, horror stories, adventure stories, fables, myths and legends, historical narratives, ballads, slice of life, personal experience and of course, fantasy stories. Features • Characters with defined personalities/identities. • Dialogue often included - tense may change to the present or the future. • Descriptive language to create images in the reader's mind and enhance the story.
Structure In a Traditional Narrative the focus of the text is on a series of actions: Orientation: (introduction) in which the characters, setting and time of the story are established. Usually answers who? When? Where? E.g. Mr. Bolt was running in the Beijing Olympics 2008- 4x100m rally race - in the morning. Complication or problem: The complication usually involves the main character(s) (often mirroring the complications in real life).
Resolution: There needs to be a resolution of the complication. The complication may be resolved for better or worse/happily or unhappily. Sometimes there are a number of complications that have to be resolved. These add and sustain interest and suspense for the reader. Further more, when there is plan for writing narrative texts, the focus should be on the following characteristics: • Plot: What is going to happen? • Setting: Where will the story take place? When will the story take place? • Characterization: Who are the main characters? What do they look like? • Structure: How will the story begin? What will be the problem? How is the problem going to be resolved? • Theme: What is the theme / message the writer is attempting to communicate?
The expository text type
It aims at explanation, i.e. the cognitive analysis and subsequent syntheses of complex facts. Example: An essay on "Rhetoric: What is it and why do we study it?"..
it is a type of text when you describe how to do something