22. Factual and emotive meanings of words as a translation challenge.
Words present certain challenges for translators, so it’s necessary to consider 3 types of lexical meanings that can be distinguished and are to be rendered in translation: referential, emotive and stylistic. Referential – has direct reference to things or phenomena of objective reality, naming also abstract notions and processes so it’s also necessary to distinguish between primary and secondary referential meanings. When we speak of referential meaning we may come to the conclusion that lexical transformations in rendering referential meaning are caused by 1) differences in vision (seeing objects) and these differences can be caused by different usage; 2) different semantic structure of a word in the SL ad TL; 3) different valency or collocability. (Ex.of different vision and usage: one and the same object can be seen by different languages in different aspects. This is reflected in different usage. “Hot milk with skin on it” = горячее молоко с пенкой - English singles out the covering, Russian-the boiling form. “School-leaver” = выпускник - in English it’s the will of the student to leave, in Russian – it’s the school that lets them out, releases them into the world. “The city is built on the terraces rising from the lake = город построен на террасах, спускающихся к озеру”. “He folded his arms across his chest, crossed his knees = он сложил руки на груди, положил ногу на ногу»)
Emotive – we all know that people express their emotions while speaking of things. Emotive meaning has no direct reference to things or phenomena but to the feelings, emotions associated with phenomena. It’s a connotative meaning, raised in the mind of the speaker and reader, this meaning is inherent (неотъемлемый) in a definite group of words even when they are taken out of context (taboo words, metaphors, similes). These words convey emotive meaning. Emotive meaning of words shouldn’t be confused with contextual emotive meaning, which words may acquire in speech. Russian is rich in emotive suffixes. These suffixes should be rendered by additional lexical means. Sometimes it’s rendered by different lexemes (house-hovel-small wretched house=дом-домишко). Some words may acquire negative, positive connotation in different context.
(Examples: He was captivated by the vulgar glamour and the shoddy brilliance of the scene before him = Он был пленен вульгарным блеском и дешевой роскошью окружающего;  Horror dawned in her face = ее лицо выразило ужас – here the verb is neutral but the noun applies negative connotation).
The emotional meaning of words usually determines the translator’s choice of words in the TL.
The word “endless” is neutral but «бесконечный» can be negative in some contexts meaning “boring/tiresome”. 
Stylistic – is based upon stylistic stratification of vocabulary and is formed by stylistic connotations. Stylistic and emotive meanings are closely connected. Stylistically colored words, words belonging to different stylistic strata possess a considerable element of emotive meaning. Ex. mug, phiz. These words no doubt more expressive than their counterpart “face”. Some emotive meaning may be acquired in context. The stylistic function of the different strata of the English vocabulary depends so much not on inner qualities of each of the groups as on their interaction when opposed to one another.
Stylistically words can be subdivided into literary and non-literary. For example when you translate Dickens it’s important to use the high-flown style in which he writes  to preserve the humour of the situation and author’s attitude towards the characters. There are 2 types of style: 1)characterizes the text from the point of view of stylistic devices being used to make the text more effective; 2) regards style as the personal manner of writing the author uses to achieve his purpose. We should note that every word is stylistically marked according to the layer of vocabulary it belongs to. If one avoids stylistic meaning instead of rendering it, it’s a bad mistake.
(Ex.: Then he finally let go at me = тут он мне врезал по-настоящему)
It’s a mistake to translate a neutral/literary word by a colloquial word