16. The paragraph as a unit of text composition. Translation of different types of paragraphs.
In the paragraph there is the topic sentence and the types of relationships among sentences are: coordination (the same level) and subordination (different levels).
An example of coordinative paragraph:
*1. In the names of justice, good sportsmanship and general honesty, it is simply essential that information reported in the public press, in meetings or committees or lunch tables be double-checked.
2. In engineering and industry this is a matter of profits or bankruptcy.
2. In medicine it is a matter of life and death.
2. In public affairs and in private life it is a matter of integrity or corruption.
2. In the laboratory it is taken for as a necessary and elementary part of scientific behavior.
In the process of translation there may occur a situation when we’ll have to divide a sentence into two or we’ll have to unite two sentences.
Во имя справедливости, честной игры и элементарной порядочности просто необходимо создать условия для того, чтобы информация, поступающая в прессе и обсуждаемая на заседаниях комитетов и во время деловых обедов, была бы проверена и перепроверена. Что касается технологии и производства, это вопрос прибылей или банкротства. В медицине это вопрос жизни и смерти. В общественной и частной жизни это вопрос порядочности или нарушения человеческих устоев. В области научных исследований это неотъемлемая характеристика научной этики.

An example of a subordinate paragraph:
* 1. The humanities, whatever is meant by that baffling term, seem to the musing observer to offer a succession of paradoxes.
2. The word itself is a modern invention, coming to us from the 19th century.
3. One might reasonably infer that, given so recent a coinage, we must know what we      mean by it.
4. In fact, however, we don’t quite know what we mean by it and this is the 1st paradox.
    5. We believe in something we cannot delimit.
6. Probably, the only safe working definition is that: you know horses – cows are different.
             7. You know the sciences – the humanities are different.
8. They are what you have left in the college  curriculum when you extract the sciences – natural, physical and social.
Here is the kind of hierarchy, which tells us that each sentence is dependent on the previous sentence, the one on the previous level.

Для вдумчивого исследователя то, что подразумевается под сомнительным термином “гуманитарные науки”, является рядом парадоксов. Сам термин появился сравнительно недавно, в 19 веке. Можно предположить, что, используя недавно изобретенное слово, мы должны знать, что оно означает. На самом деле мы не знаем, и это первый парадокс. Мы используем понятие, которому не можем дать определение. Единственно подходящим определением было бы следующее: вы когда-нибудь видели лошадь? Так вот, коровы – это совсем другое. Вы знаете, что такое естественные науки? Так вот, гуманитарные науки – это совсем другое. Это то, что останется в учебном плане университета, если оттуда убрать биологию, физику и социальные дисциплины.
We place every sentence on the separate level in the hierarchy of sentences and we try to show the dependence of one sentence on the other or others.

“1. The process of learning is essential in our life.

2. All higher animals seek it deliberately.

    3. They are inquisitive and they experiment.

4. An experiment is a sort of harmless trial run of some action, which we shall have to make in the real world; and this, whether it is made in the laboratory by scientists or by fox cubs outside their earth.

5. The scientists experiment and the cub plays; both are learning to correct their errors of judgment in a setting in which errors are not fatal.

6. Perhaps, this is what gives them both their air of happiness and freedom in these activities.”

Mixed paragraph - This kind of arrangement is a bit faculty. The 2nd sentence can exist without the 1st one. Subordination & coordination represent a special kind of ties, gluing the sentences together. But the next example will show that it’s not enough & there are special connectives. We may use all sorts of special phrases (two by two; the really critical problems solved, they…etc.)
When we write a text we should take care of such things as redundancy, if it does not serve the purpose of effectiveness. The opposite notion is compression.

*  We expect John to return from his journey today. When I looked out of the window half an hour ago I saw the lights of his flat are on. Of course it might have been Paul who was there – I know he has the key. But since I am not sure that Paul is in town, John had possibly arrived.

We could use Present perfect, but it’s wrong from the point of view of information the author wanted to convey. Due to the lack of past perfect in Russian we should use such means, which convey this idea logically.
Sometimes the removal of redundancy is possible due to the peculiarities of the language.

*We find it difficult to hear the distinctions, which are of importance in the foreign language but not in our own. We find it difficult to pronounce sounds of the foreign language with which we are not familiar. The Frenchman trying to speak English will have difficulty with our “” & “” because the sound doesn’t occur in his language. He may say “z” instead of “”because it’s familiar to him. – Трудно различать в иностранном языке то, что не различается в родном, например, произносить незнакомые звуки. Французу трудно произносить непривычный звук “” и он, скорее всего, заменит его на знакомый “z”.

We do not have to impose the rules of one language on the structural patterns of another. Instead of repeating the same structure we use connective, typical of the TL.
Language minimalism & the motto “remove redundancy” may be applied only as a result of special analysis. This happens because not all given information may be considered unnecessary to mention again. Redundancy may be saved for stylistic a purpose, that’s why it should be preserved.

* Я вас люблю любовью страстной – I love you with the passion of love

The translation can be done without a thorough analysis of a passage. But then we should use a skeleton. The skeleton of the text may be done both in the SL & in the TL. For an experienced translator the SL is more preferable, because it’s not the skeleton he is going to reproduce, but rearranged text in the TL.

Once a passage has been thoroughly understood and its essential points noted, then it’s time to write down a text of your own which is the translation. There are certain techniques to make the text most effective: compression and suppression.
Compression – rendering the same meaning economically, removing redundancy, making the meaning vivid by using the potential qualities of the language.
• Making phrase do the work of clauses and sentences. (Вскоре, после того как мы приехали… – shortly upon our arrival…)
• Telescoping two o more sentences into one. (Уж лучше я останусь дома. Не хочется мокнуть. – I’d rather stay at home than get wet.)
• Using single words instead of word combinations.  (Нимало не убоявшись трудностей  –  undaunted.)
• Using the shortest possible link to give the required “continuous connection of ideas” or semi-colon (punctuation).

Suppression is used on the context level.
1. Content redundancy must be eliminated.
2. Examples of the original passage can be suppressed and replaced by or grouped under generic terms or general definitions.
3. The interpreter should suppress anything, which s/he considers unimportant or immaterial.
4. Figurative language is unsuitable for an interpreter. Figures of speech are ornaments and must be discarded for economy’s sake.