Translation & the issue of style
There are 2 kinds of styles. They are interrelated but mean different things & allow us to view the notion of style from different prospective. Style – is the lng people use, but they may express their ideas in different ways & manners. There are functional styles, giving us specific features of text belonging to different genres. This is the layer of vocabulary people use. Then we can speak about style from the prospective of individual qualities of a writer. The problem of style affecting translation may be divided into 2 main categories. *Functional styles. *Stylistic devices. When we say functional style we mean the peculiarities of texts belonging to different genres in the SL & in the TL. Texts belonging to different functional styles such as official documents, research or scientific papers, technical manuals etc. are characterized by distinctive features that vary from lng to lng. These variations affect the comprehension, understanding of a text, its syntactic & semantic structure & the choice of linguistic devices for each time of text. The easiest is when we have equivalents to render the meaning of this or that phrase. * High contacting parties – высокие договаривающиеся стороны * We, the undersigned – мы нижеподписавшиеся * The signatories of the present agreement – стороны подписавшие соглашение Scientific & technical texts are characterized by the use of special terminology, equivalent of which should be selected from the proper style level. In a technical manual it’s essential in case of terminological synonymy to use the appropriate term for a given item. Special attention should be paid to the so-called terminological phraseology.
* Turn as far as it shal go – повернуть до конца * Rotate clock-wise – повернуть по часовой стрелке
Russian English texts are characterized by a number of certain features. The texts of newspapers are characterized abundance of neologisms, clichés, wide stylistic range, compressed structures & so on. But newspaper articles in Russian & in English have certain differences: The headlines in Russian newspaper articles are more often based on noun phrases, while the English ones on verb phrases. *The kidnapped general escapes – побег похищенного генерала English headlines use present for the past. *The government resigns – правительство ушло в отставку English titles use infinitive where Russian use future. *Coal miners to strike – шахтеры собираются бастовать English headlines have a wide semantic range. The leading article usually has one of the 6 wh’s: who, when, where, what, why, which. The most usual sequence in Russian lead is as follows: Source Message. In English it’s usually: Message Source Stylistic modification of texts is the most frequent transformation used in translation. A typical modification in translating from Russian into English is from bookish to neutral & sometimes even colloquial. Translating from English into Russian is vice versa. * The secretary told that
*Sport writers banged away In English we observe greater portions of compressed structures & this calls for expansion, translating into Russian. *Defense panel – комитет по реорганизации министерства обороны
Style as a translation issue
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Translation & the issue of style