Types of translation. T can be of 3 types:
Translation means written work.
Interpretation means oral work.
Rendition means retelling some information (makes use of both translation and interpretation),
When we speak about written T we can divide it into T of fiction, poetry, technical and scientific texts, business, official documents, etc.
When we speak about oral interpretation we have 3 types:
a)simultaneous (immediate – синхронный перевод) It can only be done with the appropriate equipment, which is necessary. The interpreter should be able to listen to the speaker & interpret almost at the same time. It’s a very challenging activity. One has to be prepared to it. He should know both lngs. He should be able to use clichés that save time & allow the interpreter to remove redundancy. The interpreter should possess the quality of an actor (intonation). He should be able to use synonyms. The interpreter should be psychologically prepared not to pay attention to mistakes. ;
b)consecutive or sequential interpretation (последовательный перевод)- . It covers a wide variety of situations, when the speaker waits for the interpreter to interpret parts of text. Interpretation depends upon the length of the pause. The translator should be able to anticipate where the meaningful part of the text begins & where it ends. The interpreter should always wait for the speaker to complete his idea. Consecutive translation presupposes that the translator should render the speaker’s attitude to what he is saying. The interpreter should preserve the effect produced by metaphors & other tropes & figures of speech. Consecutive interpretation is very common in court. In this case the interpreter should know the lng of court. The responsibility is even greater when you should translate medical texts orally. Consecutive interpretation is practiced during business negotiations. Other scenarios requiring consecutive interpretation include telecom translation & when it is a joint venture – factory sight tours & foreign visitor escort servicing. Consecutive interpretation requires formal training esp. in such instances as court interpreting, which has become rather popular in recent years.;
c)signing (=sign interpretation, intersemiotic interpretation).
Interpretation can take place in the following eniroments:
1)escort (сопровождение группы или 1-го человека) The interpreter accompanies the person. The situation is rather friendly, no tension. He knows, what he is going to speak of, knows the place of interest, gets prepared, can chose the necessary expressions or even learn his speech by heart. The only be in the ointment is the necessity to answer the questions
2)meeting (конференция, т.д.) They are usually held in a more orderly manner. The translator may resort to simultaneous translation; bcos people will keep special pauses. You’re going to discuss conditions not issues. Precision is necessary & you can discuss your clients’ intentions beforehand.
3) phone translation- Americans use it very often (24 hours a day service). The service enables the speakers to communicate by phone in a 3-way conference call, including the interpreter. This service is used mainly for business. This kind of interpretation is rather difficult. The interpreter doesn’t see the speakers & isn’t able to learn anything about topic of conversation beforehand. Speakers can switch over to any related theme & they may be illogical. The translator should use compressed lng bcos the speakers pay for a minute.
3)court-room translation (в суде)
4)sight translation (перевод секретной информации) It is usually done in court or at conferences. It means translating documents, that haven’t been given to the translator beforehand, because any of the parties may consider it profitable pot to let the other party know the content of the document. The interpreter should provide a good working version of the document under the question. Sight translation can be very different; bcos the situation dominates the process. The translator may be occasionally called upon to compare the documents in SL & TL. This happens most often in case of legal documents. This is a very important task. The translator should be familiar with both cultures. Another exercise occurs when a client is overwhelmed by high amount of material in foreign lng & he invites the translator to give him the summary on the spot. In this case precision is the most important thing. In this case you are not allowed to compress. It’s literal translation & the thing is that if you don’t know a word & think it’s necessary you may ask for recognition to use the dictionary.
Types of translation
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Types of translation. T can be of 3 types: