Our research investigates the role of pre-translation componential analysis in solving translation challenges presented by metaphor and metonymy in publicistic texts.
The aim of our research is to prove that componential analysis of metaphor and metonymy in publicistic texts helps the translator to examine the semantics and the pragmatics of a text. We also seek to prove that componential analysis allows the translator to find the most adequate and effective target language correspondence.
The hypothesis of our research consists in the fact that componential analysis of metaphor and metonymy in publicistic texts helps the translator to examine the semantics and the pragmatics of a text and allows the translator to find the most `adequate and effective target language correspondence.
The main objectives are the following:
▪ We intend to prove that componential analysis of metaphor and metonymy in publicistic texts helps to overcome lexical, lexical-grammatical and stylistic translation challenges.
▪ We will also prove that componential analysis can help us to find an `adequate and effective way of translation.
Componential analysis can be defined as a comprehensive method which allows the translator to examine the author's choice of words and word combinations, to analyze the author's intention and the reader's possible interpretation in order to suggest the most adequate and effective way of translation.
Thus, componential analysis helps the translator to analyze the denotative meaning of a word and to choose the “right” translation for metaphor and metonymy.
Let’s consider the following example:
This will not have been the shooter’s first adventure. Marcinko estimates that he might have made a dozen or more deployments, tours, etc.
The word adventure has several meanings in the source language. These are:
-an undertaking usually involving danger and unknown risks
-the encountering of risks <the spirit of adventure>
-an exciting or remarkable experience <an adventure in exotic dining>
-an enterprise involving financial risk
Combined with context analysis componential analysis allows us to choose the variant “an undertaking usually involving danger and unknown risks” as the most adequate one and to suggest the following variant of translation:
Это не первая боевая операция снайпера. Марцинко утверждает, что он прошел дюжины миссий, диверсий и тд.
Apart from componential analysis, the translator meets the challenge in rendering grammatical structure of the second sentence. In our case, we have to omit the structure of possibility and render the message as a fact.
Componential analysis also helps the translator to overcome challenges presented by semes acquired in the context.
Here is an example: He’s out there somewhere, an instant icon in the annals of American conflict, the ultimate big-game hunter. But an enigma, too, his identity cloaked for now, and maybe forever.
In this case we should take into consideration the intention of the author. In case of an official document, the author wouldn’t choose the word combination “his identity cloaked”. Probably, it would have been “his identity remains unknown”. But, in our case, it is the article and we are to preserve the stylistic color of the message.
Без сомнения он существует, где-то в хрониках американских конфликтов, этот наемник, не страшащийся опасностей, этот охотник на особо крупную дичь. Но вот странно, его личность остается загадкой сейчас и, вероятно, навсегда.
In this case we have also relied on the lexical translation technique, which is called “addition”. We had to add “без сомнения” in the beginning of the sentence in order to preserve the stylistic color of the article.
Componential analysis helps the translator to analyze things that are not expressed explicitly, but are only implied.
Let’s consider the following example: The camera really loved his face, and with good reason,” novelist Wallace Markfield wrote in a 1975 “Gunsmoke” appreciation in the New York Times. “it was a face that would age well and that, while aging, would carry intinations of waste, loss and futility.
One of the most frequent challenges that a translator comes across in publicistic texts is presented by mixed connotation, caused by various emotionally-colored semes. In our case these are “loss” and “futility”. Componential analysis together with etymological one helps us to learn that the word loss has the following meaning: failure to win.
This allows us to translate the text in the following way:
Камера действительно любила его лицо и на это были веские причины», пишет романист Wallace Markfield в газете “The New York Times” в 1975. «Это было лицо, которое будет стареть красиво и, старея, на нем появятся отпечатки утрат и потерь, проигрышей судьбе и тщетности борьбы.
The adverb “well” has many meanings in the source language. These are
in a good or proper manner
with good appearance or effect
with careful or close attention
in a way appropriate to the facts or circumstances, etc.
According to the message and the essence of the article, we are to put the meaning, which considers “good appearance” and concretize it.
As we see, componential analysis is a comprehensive approach to translation of publicistic texts, which allows the translator to examine the author's choice of words and sentence patterns, to analyze the author's intention and the reader's possible interpretation in order to suggest the most adequate and effective way of translation.
The translation techniques that may be used to overcome the translation challenges may be lexical (concretization, generalization, lexical substitution, compensation) and grammatical (addition, omission, and functional substitution).