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Stylistics

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1. The notion of style. Denotation vs connotation etc

  The term stylistics originated from the Greek stylos which means a pen.
In the course of time it developed several meanings, each one applied to a specific study of language elements and their use in speech. It is no news that any prepositional content - any idea - can be verbalized in several different ways - so, May I offer you a chair. Take a seat, please. Sit down - have the same proposition but differ in manner of expression. Which in its turn depends upon the situational conditions of the communication act. 70 per cent of over lifetime is spent in variousforms of communication activities.   
  S t y l i s t i c s is a branch of general linguistics. It has now been more or less definitely outlined. It deals mainly with two interdependent tasks: a) the investigation of the inventory of special language media which by their ontological features secure the desirable effect of the utterance and b) certain types of texts (discourse) which due to the choice and arrangement of language means are distinguished by the; pragmatic aspect of the communication.
  The first field of investigation, i.e. SD s and EM s, necessarily touches upon such general language problems as the aesthetic function of language, synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea, emotional colouring in language, the interrelation between language and thought, the individual manner of an author in making use of language and a number of other issues.
The second field, i. e. functional styles cannot avoid discussion of such most general linguistic issues as oral and written varieties of language, the notion of the literary (standard) language, the constituents of texts larger than the sentence, the generative aspect of literary texts and some others. In dealing with the objectives of stylistics, certain pronouncements of adjacent disciplines such as theory of information, literature, psychology, logic and to some extent stylistics must be touched upon. This is indispensable; for nowadays no science is entirely isolated from other domains of human knowledge; and linguistics, particularly its branch stylistics cannot avoid references to the above mentioned disciplines because it is confronted with certain overlapping issues.
The word style is derived from the Latin word stilus which meant a short, stick sharp at one end and flat at the other used by the Romans for writing on wax tablets. Now the word style is used in so many senses that it has become a breeding ground for ambiguity. The word is applied to the teaching of how to write a composition (see below); it is also used to reveal the correspondence between thought and expression; it frequently denotes an individual manner of making use of language; it sometimes refers to more general, abstract notions thus inevitably becoming vague and obscure, as, for example, Style is the man himself (Buffon), Style is depth (Darbyshire), Style is deviations (Enkvist), Style is choice, and the like.
Stylistics must take into consideration the output of the act of communication. But stylistics must also investigate the ontological, i. e. natural inherent, and functional peculiarities of the means of communication which may ensure the effect sought.
Archibald A. Hill states that A current definition of style and stylistics is that structures, sequences and patterns which extend or may extend beyond the boundaries of individual sentences define style, and that the study of them is stylistics.
The truth of this approach to style and stylistics lies in the fact that the author concentrates on such phenomena in language as present a system, in other words, on facts which are not confined to individual use.
It follows then that term style, being ambiguous, needs a restricting adjective to denote what particular aspect of style we intend to deal with. It is suggested here that the term individual style should be applied to that sphere of linguistic and literary science which deals with the peculiarities of a writers individual manner of using language means to achieve the effect he desires. It follows then that the individual style of a writer is marked by its uniqueness. Naturally, the individual style of a writer will never be entirely independent of the literary norms and canons of the given period. When we read novels by Swift or Fielding we can easily defect features common to both writers. These features are conditioned by the general literary canons of the period and cannot therefore be neglected. But the adaptations of these canons will always be peculiar and therefore distinguishable. To analyse the form in order to discover the idiosyncracies of a writers style is not an easy, but a rewarding task. Approaches to components of individuality such as 1) composition of larger-than- the sentence units, 2) rhythm and melody of utterances, 3) system of imagery, 4) preferences for definite stylistic devices and their co-relation with neutral language media, 5) interdependence of the language media employed by the author and the media characteristic of the personages, are indispensable.
What we here call individual style, therefore, is a unique combination of language units, expressive means and stylistic devices peculiar to a given writer, which makes that writers works or even utterance easily recognizable.
Hence, individual style may be likened to a proper name. It has nominal character. The analogy is, of course, conventional, but it helps to understand the uniqueness of the writers idiosyncrasy. Individual style is based on a thorough knowledge of the contemporary language and also of earlier periods in its development.
This point of view is not, however, to be taken literally. The fact that there are different norms for various types and styles of language does not exclude the possibility and even the necessity of arriving at some abstract notion of norm as an invariant, which should embrace all variants with their most typical properties. Each style of language will have its own invariant and variants, yet all styles will have their own invariant, that of the written variety of language. Both oral (colloquial) and written (literary) varieties can also be integrated into an invariant of the standard (received) language.
The norm, therefore, should be regarded as the invariant of the phonemic, morphological, lexical and syntactical patterns circulating in language-in-action at a given period of time.
Denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word, the "dictionary definition."¨ For example, if you look up the word snake in a dictionary, you will discover that one of its denotative meanings is "any of numerous scaly, legless, sometimes venomous reptiles ¡Khaving a long, tapering, cylindrical body and found in most tropical and temperate regions."
Connotation, on the other hand, refers to the associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word. The connotative meanings of a word exist together with the denotative meanings. The connotations for the word snake could include evil or danger.

2. Types and sources of connotation.

Like other linguistic disciplines stylistics deals with the lexical, grammatical, phonetic and phraseological data of the language. However there is a distinctive difference between stylistics and the other linguistic subjects. Stylistics does not study or describe separate linguistic units like phonemes or words or clauses as such. It studies their stylistic/unction. Stylistics is interested in the expressive potential of these units and their interaction in a text. Stylistics focuses on the expressive properties of linguistic units, their functioning and interaction in conveying ideas and emotions in a certain text or communicative context. Stylistics interprets the opposition or clash between the contextual meaning of a word and its denotative meaning. Accordingly stylistics is first and foremost engaged in the study of connotative meanings. In brief the semantic structure (or the meaning) of a word roughly consists of its grammatical meaning (noun, verb, adjective) and its lexical meaning. Lexical meaning can further on be subdivided into denotative (linked to the logical or nominative meaning) and connotative meanings. Connotative meaning is only connected with extra-linguistic circumstances such as the situation of communication and the participants of communication. Connotative meaning consists of four components: 1) emotive; 2) evaluative; 3) expressive; 4) stylistic. A word is always characterised by its denotative meaning but not necessarily by connotation. The four components may be all present at once, or in different combinations or they may not be found in the word at all. 1. Emotive connotations express various feelings or emotions. Emotions differ from feelings. Emotions like ./ay, disappointment, pleasure, anger, worry, surprise are more short-lived. Feelings imply a more stable state, or attitude, such as love, hatred, respect, pride, dignity, etc. The emotive component of meaning may be occasional or usual (i.e. inherent and adherent). It is important to distinguish words with emotive connotations from words, describing or naming emotions and feelings like anger or
fear, because the latter are a special vocabulary subgroup whose denotative meanings are emotions. They do not connote the speaker's state of mind or his emotional attitude to the subject of speech. Thus if a psychiatrist were to say You should be able to control feelings of anger, impatience and disappointment dealing with a child as a piece of advice to young parents the sentence would have no emotive power. It may be considered stylistically neutral. On the other hand an apparently neutral word like big will become charged with emotive connotation in a mother's proud description of her baby: He is a BIG boy already! 2. The evaluative component charges the word with negative, positive,
ironic or other types of connotation conveying the speaker's attitude
in relation to the object of speech. Very often this component is a part
of the denotative meaning, which comes to the fore in a specific
context. The verb to sneak means to move silently and secretly, usu. for a bad purpose (8). This dictionary definition makes the evaluative component bad quite explicit. Two derivatives a sneak and sneaky have both preserved a derogatory evaluative connotation. But the negative component disappears though in still another derivative sneakers (shoes with a soft sole). It shows that even words of the same root may either have or lack an evaluative component in their inner form. 3. Expressive connotation either increases or decreases the expres
siveness of the message. Many scholars hold that emotive and
expressive components cannot be distinguished but Prof. I.A.Arnold maintains that emotive connotation always entails expressiveness but not vice versa. To prove her point she comments on the example by A. Hornby and R. Fowler with the word thing applied to a girl (4, p. ). When the word is used with an emotive adjective like sweet it becomes emotive itself: She was a sweet little thing. But in other sentences like She was a small thin delicate thing with spectacles, she argues, this is not true and the word thing is definitely expressive but not emotive. Another group of words that help create this expressive effect are the so-called intensifiers, words like absolutely, frightfully, really, quite, etc. 4. Finally there is stylistic connotation. A word possesses stylistic connotation if it belongs to a certain functional style or a specific layer of vocabulary (such as archaisms, barbarisms, slang, jargon, etc). Stylistic connotation is usually immediately recognizable. Yonder, slumber, thence immediately connote poetic or elevated writing. Words like price index or negotiate assets are indicative of business language. This detailed and systematic description of the connotative meaning of a word is suggested by the Leningrad school in the works of Prof. I. V. Arnold, Z. Y. Turayeva, and others.

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3. Classifications of functional styles.
A functional style of language is a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication. A functional style is this to be regarded as the product of a certain concrete task set by the sender of the message. Functional styles appear mainly in the literary standard of a language.
In the English literary standard we distinguish the following major functional styles.
1) The language of belles-lettres.
2) The language of publicistic literature.
3) The language of newspapers.
4) The language of scientific prose.
5) The language of official documents.

Each FS may be characterized by a number of distinctive features, leading or subordinate constant or changing obligatory or optional .
The belles-lettres FS has the following substyles:
a) the language style of poetry.
b) the language style of emotive prose.
c) the language style of drama.
The publicistic FS comprises the following substyles:
a) the language style of oratory.
b) the language style of feature articles in newspapers and journals.
The newspaper FS falls into:
a) the language style of brief new items and communiques.
b) the language style of newspaper headings .
c) the language style of notices and advertisements.
The scientific prose FS also has three divisions:
a) the language style of humanization sciences.
b) the language style of exact sciences.
c) the language style of popular scientific prose.
The official document FS can be divided into four varieties:
a) the language style of diplomatic documents.
b) the language style of business documents.
c) the language style of legal documents.
d) the language style of military documents.
A. W. De. Groot points out the significance of SD s in the following passage:
Each of the aesthetically relevant features of the text serves to create a feature of the gestalt of the poem. In this senase the relevant linguistic features may be said to function or operate as gestalt factors.
The idea of the function of SD s is expressed mostfully by V. M. Zirmunsky in the following passage: The justification and the sense of each device lies in the wholeness of the artistic impression which the work of art as a self-contained thing produces on us. Each separate aesthetic fact, each poetical device finds its place in the system, the sounds and sense of the words, the syntactical structures, the scheme of the plot, the compositional purport - all in equal degree express this wholeness and find justification.
The contrast which the author of the passage quoted points to, can not always be clearly observed. In some SD s it can be grasped immediately, in others it requires a keen eye and sufficient training to detect it. It must be emphasized that the contrast reveals itself most clearly when our mind perceives twofold meanings simultaneously. The meaning run parallel: one of them taking precedence over the other.
Thus in The night has swallowed him up, the word swallow has two meanings:
a) referential
b) contextual
(to make disappear, to make vanish). The meaning (b) takes precedence over the referential (a).

4. The colloquial style.
Neutral words, which form the bulk of the English vocabulary, are used in both literary and colloquial language. Neutral words are the main source of synonymy and polysemy. It is the neutral stock of words that is so prolific in the production of new meanings.
Most neutral English words are of monosyllabic character, as, in the process of development from Old English to Modern English, most of the parts of speech lost their distinguishing suffixes. This phenomenon has led to the development of conversion as the most productive means of word building. 
Common literary words are chiefly used in writing and in polished speech. One can always tell a literary word from a colloquial word. The reason for this lies in certain objective features of the literary layer of words. What these objective features are, is difficultto say because as yet no objective criteria have been worked out. But one of them undoubtedly is that literary units stand in opposition to colloquial units. This is specially apparent when pairs of synonyms, literary and colloquial, can be formed which stand in contrasting relation.
The following synonyms illustrate the relations that exit between the neutral, literary and colloquial words in the English language.
  Colloquial
kid
daddy
chap
get out
go on
teenager
flapper
go ahead
get going
Neutral
child
father
fellow
go away
continue
boy (girl)
young girl
begin
start Literary
infant
parent
associate
retire
proceed
youth (maiden)
maiden

commence
It goes without saying that these synonyms are not only stylistic but ideographic as well, i. e. there is a definite, though slight, semantic difference between the words. But this is almost always the case with synonyms. There are very few absolute synonyms in English just as there are in any language.
Both literary and colloquial words have their upper and lower ranges. The lower range of literary words approaches the neutral layer and has a markedly obvious tendency to pass into that layer. The same may be said of the upper range of the colloquial layer: it can very easily pass into the neutral layer. The lines of demarcation between common colloquial and neutral, on the one hand, and common literaryand neutral, on the other, are blurred.
The difference in the stylistic aspect of words may colour the whole of an utterance.
In this example from Fannys First Play (Shaw), the difference between the common literary and common colloquial vocabulary is clearly seen.
DORA: Oh, Ive let it out. Have I? (contemplating Juggins approvingly as he places a chair for her between the table and the sideboard). But hes the right sort:I can see that (buttonholing him). You wont let it out downstairs, old man, will you?
JUGGINS: The family can rely on my absolute discretion.
The words in Jugginss answer are on the borderline between common literary and neutral, whereas the words and expressions used by Dora are clearly common colloquial, not bordering on neutral.
There is a certain analogy between the interdependence of common literary words and neutral ones, on the one hand, and common colloquial words and neutral ones, on the other. Both sets can be viewed as being in invariant-- variant relations. The neutral vocabulary may be viewed as the invariant of the standard English vocabulary. The stock of words forming the neutral stratum should in this case be regarded as an abstraction. The words of this stratum are generally deprived of any concrete associations and refer to the concept more or less directly. Synonyms of neutral words, both colloquial and literary, assume a far greater degree of concreteness. They generally present the same notions not abstractly but as a more or less concrete image, that is, in a form perceptible by the senses. This perceptibility by the senses causes subjective evaluations of the notion in question, or a mental image of the concept. Sometimes an impact of a definite kind on the reader or hearer is the aim lying behind the choice of a colloquial or a literary word rather than a neutral one.
In the diagram, common colloquial vocabulary is represented as overlapping into the standard English vocabulary and is therefore to be considered part of it. It borders both on the neutral vocabulary and on the special colloquial vocabulary, which, as we shall see later, falls out of standard English altogether.
Just as common literary words lack homogeneity so do common colloquial words and set expressions. Some of the lexical items belonging to this stratum are close to the non-standard colloquial groups such as jargonisms, professionalisms, etc.
Thus, the words teenager (a young girl or young man) and hippie (hippy) (a young person who leads an unordered and unconventional life) are colloquial words passing into the neutral vocabulary. They are gradually losing their non-standard character and becoming widely recognized. However, they have not lost their colloquial association and therefore still remain in the colloquial stratum of the English vocabulary. So also are the following words and expressions: take (in as I take it=as I understand); to go for (to be attracted by, like very much, as in You think she still goes for the guy?); guy (young man); to be gone on (=to be madly in love with); pro (=a professional, e. g. a professional boxer, tennis-player, etc.).

There is hardly any other term that is as ambiguous and obscure as the term slang. Slang seems to mean everything that is below the standard of usage of present-day English.
Slang (origin unknown) 1: language peculiar to a particular group, as a) the special and often secret vocabulary used by a class (as thieves, beggars) and usu. felt to be vulgar or inferior: argot: b) the jargon used by or associated with a particular trade, proffesion, or field of activity; 2: a non-standard vocabulary composed of words and senses characterized primarily by connotations of extreme informality and usu. a currency not limited to a particular region and composed typically of coinages or arbitrarily changed words, clipped or shortened forms, extravagant, forced or facetious figures of speech, or verbal novelties usu. experiencing quick popularity and relatively rapid decline into disuse.
The New Oxford English Dictionary defines slang as follows:
a) the special vocabulary used by any set of persons of a low or disreputable character; language of a low and vulgar type. (Now merged in c. /cant/); b) the cant or jargon of a certain class or period; c) language of a highly colloquial type considered as below the level of standard educated speech, and consisting either of new words or of current words employed in some special sense.   
As is seen from these quotations slang is represented both as a special vocabulary and as a special language. This is the first thing that causes confusion.
Another definition of slang, which is worth quoting, is one made by Eric Partridge, the eminent student of the non-literary language.
Slang is much rather a spoken than a literary language. It originates, nearly always, in speech. To coin a term on a written page is almost inevitably to brand it as a neologism which will either be accepted or become a nonce- word (or phrase), but, except in the rarest instances, that term will not be slang.
Sometimes slang is used to escape the dull familiarity of standard words, to suggest an escape from the established routine of everyday life. When slang is used, our life seems a little fresher and a little more personal. Also, as at all levels of speech, slang is sometimes used for the pure joy of making sounds, or even for a need to attract attention by making noise. The sheer newness and informality of certain slang words produce pleasure.
to take stock in - to be interested in, attach importance, give credence to 
Breadbasket- the stomach (a jocular use)
to do a flit- to quit ones flat or lodgings at night without paying the rent or board
rot- nonsense!
the cats pyjamas- the correct thing.

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5. The "poetic"style.

Poetic words form a rather insignificant layer of the special literary vocabulary. They are mostly archaic or very rarely used highly literary words, which aim at producing an elevated effect. They have a marked tendency to detach themselves from the common literary word-stock and gradually assume the quality of terms denoting certain definite notions and calling forth poetic diction.
Poetical tradition has kept alive such archaic words and forms as yclept (p.p.of the old verb clipian-to call, name); quoth (p.t. of cwed-an - to speak); eftsoons (eftsona, -again, soon after), which are used even by modern ballad-mongers. Let us note in passing that archaic words are here to be understood as units that have either entirely gone out of use, or as words some of whose meanings have grown archaic. e. g.
Deserted is my own goodhall, its hearth is desolate.
The satirical function of poetic words and conventional poetic devices is well revealed in this stanza. The tired metaphor and the often-used volcano are typical of Byrons estimate of the value of conventional metaphors and stereotyped poetical expressions.
A good illustration of the use of poetic words the bulk of which are archaic is the following stanza from Byrons Childe Harolds Pilgrimage.
WhIlome (at some past time0 in AIbIons Isle (the oldest name of the island of Britain) there dwelt (lived) a youth,
Who ne (not) in virtues ways did take delight:
But spent his rIot (wasteful living) most uncouth (unusual , strange)
And vexd (disturbed) with mirth (fun)the drowsy ear of Night.
Ah me! (interjection expressing regret, sorrow) in sooth (truly) he was ashameless wIght (a human being).
Sore (severely ,harshly) given to revel (noisy festivity) and ungodly (wicked) glee (entertainment);
Few earthly things found favor in his sight Save concubines (prostitutes) and carnal (not spiritual) company.
And flaunting (impudent) wassaiiers (drunkards; revelers) of high and low degree.
c) Archaic, Obsolescent and Obsolete Words
In every period in the development of a literary language one can find words, which will show more or less apparent changes in their meaning or usage, from full vigor, through a moribund state, to death, i. e. complete disappearance of the unit from the language.
We shall distinguish three stages in the aging process of words:
The beginning of the aging process when the word becomes rarely used. Such words are called obsolescent, i. e. they are in the stage of gradually out of general use. To this category first of all belong morphological forms belonging to the earlier stages in the development of the language. In the English language these are the pronouns thou and its forms thee, thy and thine; the corresponding verbal ending  -est and the verb -forms art, wilt (thou makest, thou wilt); the ending -(e)th instead of -(e)s (he maketh) and the pronoun ye.
To the category of obsolescent words belonge many French borrowings which have been kept in the literary language as a means of preserving the spirit of earlier periods, e.g. a pallet (= a straw mattress); a palfrey (= a small horse); garniture (=furniture); to emplume (=to adorn with feathers or plumes).
The second group of archaic words are those that have already gone completely out of use but are still recognized by the English-speaking community: e.g. methinks (=it seems to me); nay (=no). These words are called obsolete.
The third group, which may be called archaic proper, are words which are no longer recognizable in modern English, words that were in use in Old English and which have either dropped out of the language entirely or have changed in their appearance so much that they have become unrecognizable, e.g. troth (=faith); a losel (=a worthless, lazy fellow ).
This, the main function of archaisms, finds different interpretation in different novels by different writers. Some writers overdo things in this respect, the result being that the reader finds all kinds of obstacles in his way. Others under- estimate the necessity of introducing obsolete or obsolescent elements into their narration and thus fail to convey what is called local color.
Their own epochs-Walter Scott himself states the principles which he considers basic for the purpose: the writers language must not be out of date and therefore incomprehensible, but words and phrases of modern coinage should not be used.
It is one thing to use the language to express feelings common both to us and to our forefathers says Scott, but it is another thing to impose upon them the emotions and speech characteristics of their descendants.
Therefore we can find such words as methinks, haply, nay, travail, repast and the like in great number and of course, a multiplicity of historical terms. But you will hardly find a true archaism of the nature indicated in our classification as archaisms proper. 
The function of archaic words and constructions in official documents is terminological in character. They are used here because they help to maintain that exactness of expression so necessary in this style.
Here is an example of such a use of an archaic form. In Shaws play How He Lied to Her Husband a youth of eighteen, speaking of his feelings towards a female of thirty-seven expresses himself in a language which is not conformity with the situation. His words are:
Perfect love casteth off fear.
Stylistic functions of archaic words are based on the temporal perception of events described. Even when used in the terminological aspect, as for instance in law, archaic words will mark the utterance as being connected with something remote and the reader gets the impression that he is faced with a time-honored tradition.

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6. The oratorical style.  Modern oratorical speech is a very complicated structure as it is closely connected with other functional styles. Nowadays the specific feature of public speech is usage of simple statements, contractions, and sometimes colloquial words instead of speaking bookish language; it provides easiness of perception and helps keeping listeners attention. The above-mentioned function of persuasion can be met only by emotional appeal that supposes the use of words with emotive meaning, the use of imagery and stylistic devices. The practical basis for the research is the election, inaugural and other speeches of Barack Obama, John McCain, Sarah Palin, Hillary Clinton, Angela Merkel, and Gerhard Schroeder.

7. The newspaper style.
The literary communication, most often (but not always) materialized in the written form, is not homogeneous, and proceeding from its function (purpose) we speak of different functional styles. As the whole of the language itself, functional styles are also changeable.

Their quantity and quality change in the course of their development. At present most scholars differentiate such functional styles: scientific, official, publicist, newspaper, belles-lettres.
Newspaper style, as it is evident from its name, is found in newspapers. You should not conclude though that everything published in a newspaper should be referred to the newspaper style. The paper contains vastly varying materials, some of them being publicist essays, some-feature articles, some-scientific reviews, some-official stock-exchange accounts etc., so that a daily (weekly) newspaper also offers a variety of styles. When we mention newspaper style, we mean informative materials, characteristic of newspaper only and not found in other publications.

To attract the readers attention to the news, special graphical means are used. British and American papers are notorious for the change of type, specific headlines, space ordering, etc. We find here a large proportion of dates and personal names of countries, territories, institutions, individuals. To achieve the effect of objectivity and impartiality in rendering some fact or event, most of newspaper information is published anonymously, without the name of the newsman who supplied it, with little or no subjective modality. But the position and attitude of the paper, nonetheless, become clear from the choice not only of subject-matter but also of words denoting international or domestic issues.

8. The official style.
Official style, or the style of official documents, is the most conservative one. It preserves cast-iron forms of structuring and uses syntactical constructions and words long known as archaic and not observed anywhere else. Addressing documents and official letters, signing them, expressing the reasons and considerations leading to the subject of the document (letter-all this is strictly regulated both lexically and syntactically. All emotiveness and subjective modality are completely banned out of this style.

9. The scientific style.
Scientific style is employed in professional communication. Its most conspicuous feature is the abundance of terms denoting objects, phenomena and processes characteristic of some particular field of science and technique. Scientific style is also known for its precision, clarity and logical cohesion which is responsible for the repeated use of such clich?s as: Proceeding from; As it was said above; In connection with and other lexico-syntactical forms emphasizing the logical connection and interdependence of consecutive parts of the discourse.

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10. Vocabulary as a source of textual connotation
Words in context may acquire additional lexical meaning not fixed in dictionaries, what we have called contextual meanings. The latter may sometimes deviate from the dictionary meaning to such a degree that the new meaning even becomes the opposite of the primary meaning. Context is a sentence or several sentences which make the meaning of the word clear.
Ex: The sunset is very beautiful today.
He is in the sunset of his days. - ( ).
In the first sentence the word sunset has a primary meaning and in the second sentence this noun had developed a new meaning on the basic of the contextual meaning.
What is known in linguistics as transferred meaning is practically the interrelation between two types of lexical meaning: dictionary and contextual. The contextual meaning will always depend on the dictionary (logical) meaning to a greater or lesser extent. When the deviation from the acknowledged meaning is carried to a degree that causes an unexpected turn in the recognized logical meanings, we register a stylistic device.
The interaction or interplay between the primary dictionary meaning and a meaning which is imposed on the word by a micro-context may be maintained along different lines. One line is when the author identifies two objects which have nothing in common, but in which he subjectively sees a function, or a property, or a feature, or a quality that may make the reader perceive these two objects as identical. Another line is when the author finds it possible to substitute one object for another on the grounds that there is some kind of interdependence or interrelation between the two corresponding objects. A third line is when a certain property or quality of an object is used in an opposite or contradictory sense.

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11. Classification of tropes
(1) In stylistics and poetics, a word or word group used in a figurative rather than a literal sense. More narrowly, a trope may be defined as a way of transferring a words meaning in order to achieve an aesthetically expressive effect in literary, rhetorical, and publicist language, as well as in everyday, scientific, and scholarly language and in advertisements. The aesthetically expressive effect achieved by the trope is the result of the use of imagery, of the functional and stylistic aptness of the elements of a given work, and of the profundity of the writers depiction. The writers relationship to tropes varies during different epochs, among different genres, and even in different parts of a single work. An abundance or scarcity of tropes in a work does not in itself testify to the works literary merit. However, by determining the linguistic form of an expression, a trope always gives form to a works content.

Both tropes and figures (figures of speech) were analyzed in works of classical and medieval poetics and rhetoric. In these works, tropes were regarded as reinterpreted figures, alongside the traditional figures of augmentation (repetition and its variants), reduction (ellipsis), and transposition (inversion).

Tropes have two levels of meaning, one literal and one figurative, or allegorical. However, it is impossible to make a clear-cut distinction between tropes and figures, since augmentation of meaning is also typical of figures, which are intonational and syntactic variants of word combinations. Such tropes as metonymy, metaphor, personification, symbol, and (occasionally) synecdoche, catachresis, and paronomasia have constituted a common feature of the works of outstanding authors and are also typical of the historical development of a common national language.

The highly detailed medieval works on poetics listed more than 200 types of tropes and figures. Many of the names that designated these tropes and figures are still used in modern literary studies. It would be impossible to define conclusively each type of trope and figure; the same is true of synonyms and homonyms when these are used to designate tropes. For example, the meanings of the words and expressions verbal image, allegory, trope, figurative meaning, metaphor, and symbol are insufficiently delimited. The distinctions made between the trope and the figure are inconsistent, and consequently the two terms are often used synonymously. However, it is extremely difficult to develop a consistent system of relationships among the highly varied types of transferred meaning in words.

The traditional approach to tropes, which adheres to the method of detailed classification, does not take into account the actual and potential interaction of tropes and figures in literary works. This approach classifies similes and epithets as figures and consequently cannot specify the resemblances and differences between the metaphor-simile the ruddy fists of apples (E. Bagritskii) and its possible variations. These include apples like ruddy fists (simile), the apples became ruddy fists (metamorphosis), ruddy fists (that is, the applesa typical metaphor), and apples, [those] ruddy fists (metaphoric periphrasis). Moreover, certain linguistic innovations of 20th-century literature are best described as examples of word formation and not as previously unknown and unused types of tropes and figures; an example is the visual trope.

Another approach to tropes and figures, developed in the 1960s, is associated with structural linguistics and semiotics. This approach seeks to establish general principles whose application will make it possible to describe any contextual transformation of a words sound, meaning, or syntactic position. The new approach attempts to define precisely the meaning of each trope and to provide a complete listing of tropes. It seeks to establish a syntactic system of tropes that will specify existing and possible combinations of tropes. The new approach to tropes and figures also aims to describe the types of words and syntactic positions that provide the foundation for tropes and their combinations; without such a description it is impossible to create a pragmatic system of tropes, that is, to define their content in terms of social and ideological value judgments.

A uniform description of the varied functions of tropes would facilitate progress from an empirical analysis of tropes to the construction of a modern theory of tropes and figures as literary devices. Such a uniform description would also make it possible to trace the history of the trope as a subsystem of poetic language. The semiotic approach to art, which is valuable if only for its establishment of a general framework encompassing all types of art, has broadened the significance and applicability of many previously arbitrary definitions of tropes. For example, the concepts of metaphor and metonymy have been applied to the field of motion pictures. The theory of tropes and figures in its philological aspect is thus becoming of great importance in art studies.

In aesthetics, the association of the trope with the writers world view within the context of literary language has been insufficiently studied. It is clear, however, that differing authorial world views may be revealed in the choice of tropes, in the preference accorded to some tropes, in the relative frequency of tropes in different works, and in the absence or paucity of tropes.

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12. Simile. Epithet.

Simile
The intensification of some one feature of the consept in question is realized in a divice called simile . Ordinary comparison and simile must not be confused. They represent two devirse processes.  Comparison means weighing two objects belonging to one class of things with the purpose of establishing the degree of their sameness or difference. To use a simile is to characterize one object by brining it into contact with another object beloning to an entirely different class of thing. Comparison takes into consederation all the properties of the two objects, stressing the one that is compared. Simile excludes all the properties of the two objects except one, which is made common to them. For example, The boy seems to be as clever as his mothers ordinary comparison. Boy and mother belongs to the same class of objects - human beings -so this is not a simile but ordinary comparison.
Similes have formal elements in their structure: connective words such as like as, such as, as if, seem. Here are some examples of similes taken from various sources and illustrating the variety of structural designs of this stylistic device.
His mind was restless ,but it worked perversely and thoughts jerked through his brain like the misfiring of a defective carburetor (Maugham)
The semantic nature of the simile-forming elements seems and as if is such that they only -remotely suggest resemblance. Quite different are the connective like and as. These are more categorical and establish quite straightforwardly the analogy between the two objects in question.
Sometimes the simile forming like is plased at the end of the phrase almost merging with it and becoming half-suffix, for example:
Emily Barton was very pink ,very Dresden-china shepherdess like.
In simple non-figurative language,it will assume the following form:
Emily Barton was very pink and looked like a Dresden -china-shepherdess.
Simile may suggest analogies in the character of actions performed. In this case the two members of structural design of the simile will resemble each other through the actions they perform. Thus:
The Liberals have plunged for entry without considering its   
effect, while the Labour liders like cautious bathers have put a timor-
ous toe into the water and promtly withdrawn it.
The simile in this passage from a newspaper article like cautious bathers is based on the simultaneous realization of the two meanings of the word plunge. The primary meaning to throw oneself into the water-prompted the figurative periphrasis have put a timorous toe into the water and promptly withdrawn it standing for have abstained from taking action.
In the English language there is long list of hackneyed similes pointing out the anology between the various qualities,staties or actions of a quality , etc., for example:
Tracherous as a snake, sly as fox, busy as a bee, industrious as an ant, blint as a bat, faithful as a dog, to work as a horse, to led like a sheep, to fly like a bird, to swim like a duck, stubborn as a mule, hungry as a bear, thirsty as a camel, to act like a puppy, playfull as a kitten, vain (prod) as a peacock, slow as a tortoise and many others of the same type.
These combinations ,however, have ceased to be genuine similes and have become cliches in which the second component has become mererly an adverbial intensifier. Its logical meaning is only vaguely percieved.
From the point of view of the content trite simple can be classified into the following:
1. Simile describing the appearance of a person fat as a pig , fare as a lily.
2. Simile describing the features of the character industrious as an ant , faithful as a dog .
3. Simile describing the actions :busy as a bea , fleet as a dear , slow as a tortoise.
4. Simile describing the inner state feel like a fish out of water ,blash as a sin , blush like rose.
Genuin simile is a comparison between seemingly uncompareable things
He felt lonely as a telephone ringing in an empty room.
The stylistic function of simile may be different:
1. to produce a humorous effect by its unexppectedness, hairless as a boiled onion.
2. imaginatine characterisation of a phenomenon.

The Epithet

From the strongest meanings of displaying the writers or speakers emotional attitutde to his communication,we now pass to a weaker but  still forcefull means-the epithet.The epithet is subtle and delicate in character.
The epithet is a stylistic device based on the interplay of emotive and logical meaning in an attributive word, phrase or even sentence used to characterise an object and pointing out to the reader,and frequently imposing on him, some of the properties or features of the object with the aim of giving an individual perception and evaluation of these features or properties. The epithet is markedly subjective and evaluative. The logical attribute is purely objective,non-evaluating. It is descriptive and indicates an inherent or prominent feature of the thing or phenomenon in question.
The epithet makes a strong impact on the reader, so much so, that he unwittingly begins to see and evaluate things as the writer wants him to. Indeed,in such word combinations as destructive charms, glorious sight, encouraging smile, the interrelation between logical and emotive meanings may be said to manifest itself in different degrees. The word destructive has retained its logical meanings to a considerable extent, but at the same time an experienced reader cannot help perceiving the emotive meaning of the word, which in this combination will signify conquering,irresistible, dangerous. The logical meaning of the word glorious in combination with the word sigh has almost entirely faded out. Glorious is already fixed in dictionaries as a word having an emotive meaning alongside its primary, logical meaning. Take, for example ,the adjectives green,white,blue,lofty (but somehow not round) in the combinations given above. In a suitable context they may all have a definite emotional impact on the reader.
Epithets may be classified from different standpoints:semantic and structural.Semantically epithets may be divided into two groups:those associated withthe noun following and those unassosiated with it.
Assosiated epithets are those ,which point to a feature, which is essential to the objects they describe: the idea expressed in the epithet is to a certain extent inherent in the concept of the object. The associated epithet immediately refers the mind to the concept in question due to some actual quality of the object it is attached to,for instans dark forest, dreary midnight, careful attention, unwearing research, indefatigable assiduity, fantastic terrors, etc.
Unnassosiated epithets are attributes used to characterize the object by adding a feature not inherent in it, i.e. a feature which may be so unexpected as to strike the reader by its novelty, as, for instance, heatburning smile, bootless cries, sullen earth, voiceless sands, etc. The adjectives here do not indicate any property inherent in the objects in question. They impose, as it were, a property on them, which is fittihg only in the given circumstance. It may seem strange, unusual, or even accidental.
  Structurally, epithet can be viewed from the angle of a) composition and b) distribution.
  From the point of view of their compositional structure epithets may be divided into simple, compound, phrase and sentence epithets. Simple epithets are ordinary adjectives. Examples have been given above. Compound epithets are built like compound adjectives. Example are:
  heart-burning sigh, sylph-like figures, cloud-sharpen giant,
  ...curly-headed good-for-nothihg ,
And mischief-making monkey from his birth. (Byron)
  Here some examples of phrase epithets:
  It is this do-it-yourself , go-if-alone attitude that has thus far held back real development of the Middle Easts river resourses.(N.Y.T.Magazine, 19 Oct., 1958.)
Another structural variety of the epithet is one ,which we shall term, reversed. The reversed epithet is composed of two nouns linked in an of-phrase. The subjective, evaluating, emotional elements is embodied not in the noun attribute but in the noun structurally described, for example: the shadow of a smile; a devil of a job(Maugham); ...he smiled brightly, neatly, efficiently, a military abbreviation of a smile(graham Green); A devil of a sea rolls in that bay(byron); A Little Flying Dutchman of a cab(Galsworthy); a dog of a fellow(Dickens)her brute of a brother(Galsworthy);...a long nightshirt of a mackintosh... (Cronin)

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13. Metaphor.
Metaphor is relation of logical and contextual meanings based on the resemblance of two objects, ideas, actions.
Ex: She is a fox.
Metaphors can be expressed by almost all parts of speech and functions in the sentence as any of its members.
Ex: heart of stone (noun)
the night swallowed him up (verb)
the leaves fell sorrowfully (adverb)
Metaphors expressed by one word is called simple. There are metaphors which are expressed by several words, a group of words, they are metaphorical periphrasis.
Ex: Oh, let me true in love but truely and then believe me, my love is as fear as any mothers child, though not so bright as those gold candles fixed in heavens air.
A metaphor becomes a stylistic device when two different phenomena (things, events, ideas, actions) are simultaneously brought to mind by the imposition of some or all of the inherent properties of one object on the other which by nature is deprived of these properties. Such an imposition generally results when the creator of the metaphor finds in the two corresponding objects certain features, which to his eye have something in common.
Metaphors, like all stylistic devices, can be classified according to their degree of unexpectedness. Thus metaphors, which are absolutely unexpected, i.e. are quite unpredictable, are called genuine metaphors. Those, which are commonly used in speech and therefore are sometimes even fixed in dictionaries as. Expressive means of language are trite metaphors, or dead metaphors. Their predictability therefore is apparent. Genuine metaphors are regarded as belonging to language-in-action, i.e. speech metaphors; trite metaphors belong to the language-as-a-system, i.e. language proper, and are usually fixed in dictionaries as units of the language.
Ex:
1) Mrs. Smalls eyes boiled with excitement.
2) Denis did not dance, but then ragtime came squirting out of the pianola in jets of Bengal light, then things began to dance inside him.
In this example author uses verbal metaphor to dance to describe inside conditionof the character. These metaphors compare uncomparable things:
play of waves,
expence of trouble, etc.   

In trite metaphors one of the meaning is supressed by the other. Trite metaphors played an important role in the development of the language, the words which acquire new meaning are fixed in dictionary.
Ex: the salt of life, to burn with passion, to be in the same boat, foot of a bed, leg of a chair, head of a nail.
The main stylistic function of metaphor is to create images. Metaphors can express not only one image, but several. Such metaphors are called sustained or prolonged.
Ex: The tight little days turned. seven times times and clicked on tooth of the week, which in turn engaged the slow, constantly moving wheel of month.

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14. Metonymy. Personification.

Metonymy is based on a different type of relation between the dictionary and contextual meanings, a relation based not on identification, but on some kind of association connecting the two concepts which these meanings represent. 
Metonynymy used in language-in-action, i.e. contextual metonymy, is genuine metonymy and reveals a quite unexpected substitution of one word for another, on the ground of some strong impression produced by a chance feature of the thing.
Many attempts have been made to pinpoint the types of relation which metonymy is based on. Among them the following are most common. 
1) A concrete thing used instead of an abstract notion.
The camp, the Bulpit and the Law
For rich mans sons are free.
2) The container instead of the thing contained.
The hall applauded, The cattle boiled. (instead of water).
3) The reqlation  of proximity; as in;
The round game table was boisterous and happy.
4) The material instead of the thing made of it; as in;
The marble spoke.
5) The instrument which the doer uses in performing the action instead of the action or the doer himself; as the sword is the worst argument that can be used, so should it be last.
6) The name of the author for his work: I read Sheakespear.
Looking up Denis saw two heads overtopping the hedge immediately above him.
twoheads - mens heads used instead of men themselves.
Barbecue Smith was tossed on the floor.
In this sentence the author of the book is used instead of the book.
Metonymy like all SD s can be genuine and trite. Genuine metonymy reveals a quite unexpected substitution of one word for another or one concept for another.
Then they came in. Two of them, a man with long fair moustaches and a silent dark man... Definitely the moustache and I had nothing in common. (D.Lessiv)
Here we have a featire of a man which catches the eye, in this case his facial appearance: the moustach stand for the man himself. The function of the metonymy here is to indicate that the speaker knows nothing of the man in question, moreover there is a definite implication that this is the first time the speaker has seen him.
Trite metonymies belong to EM of the language, they are widely used and therefore some of them are fixed in the dictionaries. Due to trite metonymy new meaning appear in the language.
However, when such meanings are included in dictionaries, there is usually a label fig. (figurative use).This shows that the new meaning has not replaced the primary one, but, as it were, co-exists with it.
Ex: a hand - as a worker (fixed metonymy)
The stylistic function of metonymy is to create, imagery, to give sensual, visuable, more perceptable presentationof an idea. Hence nouns in metonymy are mostly used with the definite articles, or without it at all.
Besides metonymy may have a characterizing function when it is used to make the characters description significant or rather insignificant (by mentioning only his hat and collar).
A metonymy differs from metaphor by the fact that a metaphor may be periphrased into a simile by the help of such words as: as if, to as, like etc.
With metonymy you can not do so.

Personification. A figure of speech (generally considered a type of metaphor) in which an inanimate object or abstraction is given human qualities or abilities.

The term in classical rhetoric for personification is prosopopoeia.
As personifications of their respective nations, England and the U.S., John Bull and Uncle Sam became popular during the 19th century.

The wind stood up and gave a shout.
He whistled on his fingers and

Kicked the withered leaves about
And thumped the branches with his hand

And said he'd kill and kill and kill,
And so he will and so he will.
(James Stephens, "The Wind")

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15. Periphrasis and euphemism. Hyperbole and litotes. Unusual collocations. Oxymoron.

Oxymoron is a combination of two words (mostly an adjective and a noun or an adverb with an adjective) in which the meaning of the two clash, being opposite in sense, for example:
  low skyscraper, sweet sorrow, nice rascal , pleasantly ugly face, horribly beautiful , a deafening silence.
  In the primary meaning of the qualifying word changes or weakens,the stylistic effect of oxymoron is lost. This is the case with what were once oxymoronic combinations, for example, awfully nice, awfully glad, terribly sorry and the like,where the words awfully and terribly have lost their primary logical meaning and are now used with emotive meaning only, as intensifiers. The essence of oxymoron consist in the capacity of the prmary meaning of the adjective or adverbs to resist for some time the overwhelming of semantic change,which words undergo in combinations.
Let us take the following example from O.Henrys story The Duel in which one of the heroes thus describes his attitude towards NewYork.
I, despise its very vatness and power. It has the poorest millionaires,
the littlest great men, the haughtiest beggars, the plainest beauties, the lowest skyscrapers, the dolefulest pleasures of any town I ever saw.
Even the superlative degree of the adjectives fails to extinguish the primary meaning of the adjectives:poor, little,haughty,etc. But by some inner law of word combinations they also show the attitude of the speaker, reinforsed, of course, by the preceding sentence: I despise its very vast-ness and power.
Oxymoron has one main structural model: adjective+noun. It is in this structural model that the resistance of the two component parts to fusion into one unit manifests itself most strongly. In the adverb +adjective model the change of meaning in the first element ,the adverb, is more rapid, resistance to the unifying process not being so strong.

Periphrasis
Periphrasis is a device, which, according to Websters dictionary, denotes the use of a longer phrasing in place of a possible shorter and plainer form of expression.It is also called circumlocution due to the roud-about or indirect way used to name a familiar object or phenomenon. Viewed from the angle of its linguistic nature,perephrasis represent the renaming of an object and as such may be considered along with a more general group of word designations replasing the direct names of their denotata. One and the same object may be identified in different ways and accordingly acqure different appelations . Thus, in different situations a certain person can be denoted, for instance, as either his benefactor, or this boreor the narrator, or the wretched witness, etc. These names will be his only in a short fragment of the discourse, the criterion of their choice being furnished by the context. Such naming units may be called secondary, textually confined designations and are generally composed of a word-combination.
This device has a long history. It was widely used in the Bible and in Homers Iliad. As a poetic device it was very popular in Latin poetry . Here are some examples of well-known dictionary periphrases(periphrastic synonyms);
the cap and gown (students body);a gentlemen of the long robe (a lawyer); the fair sex (women); my better half (my wife).
For example, gave birth to a cluster of periphrastic synonyms of the word king, as: the leader of hosts;the giver of rings; the protector of earls; the victor lord. A play of swords meant abatte; a battle-seat wasa saddle; a shield-bearer was a warrior.
Here are some such stylistic periphrases:
I understand you are poor , and wish to earn money by nursing the little boy, my son , who was been so premately deprived of what can never bereplased.(Dickens)
The object clause what can never be replasedis a periphrasis for the word mother . The concept is easily understood by the reader within the given context , the latter being the only code which makes the deciphering of the phrase possible.
Stylistic periphrasis can also be devided into logical and figurative. Logical periphrasis is based in one of the inheren properties or perhaps a passing feature of the object described, as in instruments of destruction (Dickens) - pistols; the most pardonable of human weaknesses..(Dickens) - love the object of his admiration (Dickens); that proportion of the population which...is yet able to read words of more than one syllable, and to read them without perceptible movement of the lips - half-literate.
  Figurative periphrasis is based either on metaphor or on metonymy, the key -word of the collocation being the word used figuratively , as in the punctual servant of all work (Dickens)^the sun; in disgrase with fortune and mens eyes (Sheakspeare) - in misfortune; to tie the knot= to marry.
There is little difference between metaphor or metonymy, on the one hand , and figurative periphrasis, on the other. It is the structural aspect of the periphrasis, which always presupposes a word-combination, that is the division.
  Euphemism
Euphenism, as is known , is a word or phrase used to replace an unpleasant word or expression by a conventionally more acceptable one, for example, the word to die has bred the following euphemisms: to pass away, to expire, to be no more, to kick the bucket , to give up the ghost , to go to west. So euphenisms are synonyms, which aim at producting a deliberately mild effect .
The origin of the term euphemism discloses the aim of device very clearly, i.e. speaking well (from Greek -eu=well+pheme= speaking).
Compare these euphenisms with following from Dickenss Pickwick Papers:
They think we have come by this horse in some dishonest manner. The italicized parts call forth the word steal (have stolen it).
Euphenism may be divided into several groups according to their spheres of application. The most recognized are the following:1) religious 2) moral 3) medical and 4) parliamentary .
The author further points out that certain words, for instance, traitor and coward, are specifically banned in the House of Commons because earlier Speakers have ruled them disorderly or unparliamentary. Speakers have decided that jackass is unparliamentary but goose is acceptable; dog, rat and swine are out of the order , but halfwit and Tory clot are in order.
As has already been explained, genuine euphenism must call up the word it stands for. It is always the result of some deliberate clash between two synonyms. If a euphemism fails to carry along with it the word it is intended to replace, it is not a euphenism, but a deliberate veiling of the truth. All these building up of labour reserves, savings, freew interprisers and the like are not intended to give referent its true name, but not to desort the truth. The above expression serve that purpose. Compare these word-combinations with real euphenisms,like to four-letter word (==an obscenity); or a woman of a certain type (==a prostitute, a whore); to glow (==to sweat), all of which bring to our mine! The other words (words) and only through them the referent.
This becomes particularly noticeable in connection with what are called political euphenisms. These are really understatements, the aim of which is to mislead public opinion and to express what is unpleasant in a more delicate manner. Sometimes disagreeable facts are even distorted with the help of a euphemistic expression .Thus the headline in one of the British newspapers Tension in Kashmir was to hide the fact that there was a real uprising in that area; Undernourishment of children in India stood for starvation. In A.J.Cronins novel The Stars Look Down one of the members of Parliament ,reffering to the words Undernourishment of children in India says: Honorable Members of the House understand the meaning of this polite euphemism. By calling undernourishment a polite euphenism he discloses the true meaning of the word.
Hyperbole
AnotherSD, which also has the function of intensifying one certain property of the object described, is hyperbole. It can be defined as a deliberate overstatement or exaggeration of a feature essential (unlike periphrasis) to the object or phenomenon. In its extreme form this exaggeration is carried to an logical degree, sometimes an absurd. For example:
He was so tall that I was not sure he had a face. (O. Henry) or Those three words (Dombey and Son) conveyed the one idea of Mr. Dombeys life. The earth was made for Dombey and Son to trade in and the sun and the moon were made to give them light. Rivers and seas were formed to float their ships; rainbows gave them promise of fair weather; winds blew for or against their enterprises;  stars and planets circled in their orbits to preserve inviolate a system of which they were the center. (Dickens).
   In order to depict the width of the river Dnieper Gogol uses the following hyperbole:
   Its a rare bird that can fly to the middle of the Dnieper.
Like many stylistic devices, hyperbole may lose its quality as a stylistic device through frequent repetition and become a unit of the language -as -a -system, reproduced in speech in its unuttered form. Here are some examples of language hyperbole:
A thousand pardons, scared to death, immensely obliged, Id give the world to see him.
Byron says:
   When people say Ive told you fifty times
   They mean to scold, and very often do.

In rhetoric, litotes[1] are a figure of speech in which understatement is employed for rhetorical effect when an idea is expressed by a denial of its opposite, principally via double negatives.[2][3][4] For example, rather than saying that something is attractive (or even very attractive), one might merely say it is "not unattractive."

Litotes is a form of understatement, always deliberate and with the intention of emphasis.[5] However, the interpretation of negation may depend on context, including cultural context. In speech, it may also depend on intonation and emphasis; for example, the phrase "not bad" can be said in such a way as to mean anything from "mediocre" to "excellent."

The use of litotes appeals specifically to certain cultures including the northern Europeans and is popular in English, Russian and French. They are features of Old English poetry and of the Icelandic sagas and are a means of much stoical restraint.

A collocation is two or more words that often go together. These combinations just sound "right" to native English speakers, who use them all the time. On the other hand, other combinations may be unnatural and just sound "wrong". Look at these examples:Natural English... Unnatural English...
the fast train
fast food the quick train
quick food
a quick shower
a quick meal a fast shower
a fast meal

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16. Pun. Zeugma.Irony.
The pun
The pun is another SD based on the interaction of two well-known meanings of a word or a phrase. It is difficult to distinguish zeugma and the pun. The only distinguishing feature is a structural one: zeugma is the realization of two meanings with the help of a verb which refers to different subjects or objects. The pun is more independent. There need not necessity be a word in the sentence to which the pun word refers. It depends on a context. The title of O Wild is play The Importance of being Earnest.
Thus the title of one of Oscar Wildes plays The Importance of Being Earnest has a pun in it in as much as the name of the hero and the adjective meaning seriously-minded are both present in our mind.
The Stylistic function of these devices is to produce a humorous effect.
Puns are used in riddles and jokes, for example:
What is the difference between a schoolmaster and an engine - driver? (One trains the mind and the other minds the train).

As is known, the word is at all language units, the most sensitive to change; its meaning gradually develops and as a result of this development new meanings appear alongside the primary one. It is normal for almost every word to acquire derivative meanings; sometimes the primary meaning has to make way for quite a new meaning which ousts it completely. Polysemy is a category of lexicology and as such belongs to language-as-a-system.
In actual everyday speech polysemy vanishes unless it is deliberately retained for certain stylistic purposes. A context that does not seek to produce any particular stylistic effect generally materializes but one definite meaning.
However, when a word begins to manifest an interplay between the primary and one of the derivative meanings we are again confronted with an SD.
Zeugma is the use of a word in the same grammatical but different semantic relations to two adjacent words in the context, the semantic relations being, on the one hand, literal, and on the other, transferred.
Zeugma is a strong and effective device to maintain the purity of the primary meaning when the two meanings clash.
The pun is another stylistic device based on the interaction of two well-known meanings of a word or phrase. It is difficult to draw a hard and fast distinction between zeugma and the pun. The only reliable distinguishing feature is a structural one: zeugma is the realization of two meanings with the help of a verb, which is made to refer to different subjects or objects (direct or indirect). The pun is more independent. There need not necessarily be a word in the sentence to which the pun word refers. This does not mean, however, that the pun is entirely free. Like any other stylistic device, it must depend on a context.
Puns are often used in riddles and jokes, for example, in this riddle:
What is the difference between a schoolmaster and an engine driver? (One trains the mind and the other minds the train.)
In Robert Frosts poem Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening tune poet, taking delight in watching the snow fall on the woods, concludes his poem in the following words:
The woods are lovely, dark and deep. But I have promises to keep, and miles to go before I sleep, and miles to go before I sleep.
The word promises here is made to signify two concepts , viz. 1) a previous engagement to be fulfilled and 2) moral or legal obligation.
Here is another example. In Shakespearian Sonnet 29 there are the following lines:
When in disgrace with fortune and mens eyes,
I all alone beweep my outcast state,
And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries,
And think upon myself and curse by fate.
Almost every word here may be interpreted in different senses: sometimes the differences are hardly perceptible; sometimes they are obviously antagonistic to the primary meaning.
But we shall confine our analysis only to the meaning of the word cries, which signifies both prayer and lamentation. The relation of the word cries suggests these two meanings to trouble deaf heaven. But the word cries suggests not only prayer and lamentation; it also implies violent prayer and lamentation as if in deep despair, almost with tears (see the word be weep in the second line of the part of the sonnet quoted).
Ex: And Mays mother always stood on her gentitity; and Dots mother never stood on anything but her active little feet. (Dickens).
The word stood is used here twice. One meaning is independent to stand on feet and another is a connected meaning.
There are two types of zeugma.
1) Zeugma based on interaction of independent and connected meaning of the word.
Ex: He paid him a visit and a fee.
He took his hat and his leave.
2) Zeugma based on interaction of primary and secondary meaning of the word.
Ex: Oh man with sister dear!
Oh man with mothers and wives?
Ex: It is not linen you are wearing out
But human creature lives

wear out linen - is used in primary meaning,
wear out lives - the secondary meaning .
Zeugma is expressed by  verb+noun, adj+noun.
Ex: Klara was not a narrow woman either in mind or body.
Dora, plunging at once into privileged intimacy and into the middle of the room.
to plunge (into the middle of a room) materializes the meaning to rush into or enterimpetuously. Here it is used in its concrete, primary, literary meaning: in to plunge into privileged intimacy, plung is used in its derivative meaning.    
She lost her purse, head and reputation.
Here the word lost has the same grammatical relation but the semantic relations are different, to loose a head or reputation that is logical connected meaning.

Irony is a stylistic device also based on the simultaneous realization of two logical meanings -dictionary and contextual, but the two meanings stand in opposition to each other. For example:
It must be delightful to find oneself in a foreign country without a penny in ones pocket.
Irony must not be confused with humor, although they have very much in common. Humor always causes laughter. What is funny must come as a sudden clash of the positive and the negative. In this respect irony can be likened to humor. But the function of irony is not confined to producing a humorous effect.
Another important observation must be born in mind when analyzing the linguistic nature of irony. Irony is generally used to convey a negative meaning.

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17. Antonomasia. Allegory.

Antonomasia
We have already pointed out the peculiarities of nominal meaning. The interplay between the logical and nominal meanings of a word called - antonomasia. As in other stylistic devices based on the interaction of lexical meanings, the two kinds of meanings must be realised in the word simultaneously.If only one meaning is materialized in the context, there is no stylistic device, as in hooligan,boycott and other examples given earlier. Here are some examples of genuine antonomasia 
Among the herd of journals which are published in the States, there are some, the reader scarcely need be told, of character and credit. From personal intercourse with accomplished gentlemen connected with publications of this class, I have derived both pleasure and profit. But the name of these is Few, and of the other Legion ,and the influence of the good is powerless to counteract the mortal poison of the bad. (Dickens)
The use of the word name made the author write the words Few, and Legion with capital letters. It is very important to note that this device is mainly realized in the written language, because generally capital letters are the only signals to denote the presence of the stylistic device. The same can also be observed in the following example from Byrons Don Juan:
Society is now one polished horde,
Formd of two mighty tribes,the Bores and Bored.
In these two examples of the use of antonomasia the nominal meaning is hardly perceived, the logical meaning of the words few,legion,bores,bored being too strong. But there is another point that should be mentioned. Most proper names are built on some law of analogy. Many of them end in -son (as Johnson) or -er (Fletcher). We easily recognize such words as Smith, White ,Brown,Green Fowler and other as proper name . But such names as Miss Blue-Eyes (Carter Brown) or Scrooge or Mr.Zero may be called token or telling names.They give information to the reader about the bearer of the name. In this connection it is interesting to recall the bearer of the name .In this connection it is interesting to recall the well-known remark by Karl Marx, who said that we do not know anything about a man if we only know that he is called Jacob. The nominal meaning is not intended to give information about the person. It only serves the purpose of identification.Proper names, i.e. the words with nominal meaning ,can etymologically, in the majority of cases,be traced to some quality, properity or trait of a person,or to his occupation. But this etymological meaning may be forgotten and the word be understood as a proper hame and nothing else. It is not so with antonomasia. Antonomasia is intended to point out the leading, most characteristic feature of a person or event, at the same time pinning this leading trait as a proper name to the person or event concerned. In fact, antonomasia is a revival of the initial stage in naming individuals .
Antonomasia may be likened to the epithet in essence if not in form . It categoriezes the person and thus simultaneously indicates both the general and the particular.
The use of antonomasia is now not confined to the belles-lettres style. It is often found in publicistic style,that is ,in magazine and newspaper articles ,in essays and also in military language. The following are examples:
I say this to our American friends. Mr .Facing-Both-Ways does not get very far in this world. (The Times)
I suspect that the Noes and Dont Knows would far out-number the Yesses.(The Spectator)
So far we have dealt with a variety of antonomasia in which common words with obvious logical meaning are given nominal meaning without losing their primary ,basic significance. But antonomasia can also make a word wnich now has a basic nominal meaning acquire a generic signification ,thus supplying the word with an additional logical meaning. The latter can only be deciphered if the events connected with a certain place mentioned or with a conpicuous feature of a person are well known. Thus, the word Dunkirk now means the evacuation of troops under heavy bombardment before it is too late, Sedan means a complete defeat , Coventy - the destruction of a city by air raids, a quizling now means a traitor who aids occupying enemy forces.
The spelling of tense words demonstrates the stages by which proper nouns acquire new, logical maenings: some of them are still spelt with capital letters (geographical names), others are already spelt with small letters showing that a new word a primary logical meaning has already come into existence.
This variety of antonomasia is not so widely used as a stylistic device, most probably due to the nature of words with nominal meanings: they tell very little or even nothing about the bearer of the name.

Allegory is a figurative mode of representation conveying meaning other than the literal. Allegory communicates its message by means of symbolic figures, actions or symbolic representation. Allegory is generally treated as a figure of rhetoric, but an allegory does not have to be expressed in language: it may be addressed to the eye, and is often found in realistic painting, sculpture or some other form of mimetic, or representative art. Simply put, an allegory is a device used to present an idea, principle or meaning, which can be presented in literary form, such as a poem or novel, or in visual form, such as in painting or sculpture. As a literary device, an allegory in its most general sense is an extended metaphor. As an artistic device, an allegory is a visual symbolic representation. An example of a simple visual allegory is the image of the grim reaper. Viewers understand that the image of the grim reaper is a symbolic representation of death. Nevertheless, images and fictions with several possible interpretations are not allegories in the true sense. Furthermore, not every fiction with general application is an allegory.

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18. The use of phraseologisms.
Phraseological units can be classified according to the ways they are formed, according to the degree of the motivation of their meaning, according to their structure and according to their part-of-speech meaning.a) The most productive in Modern English is the formation of phraseological units by means of transferring the meaning of terminological word-groups, e.g. in cosmic technique we can point out the following phrases: launching pad in its terminological meaning is
b) a large group of phraseological units was formed from free word groups by transforming their meaning, e.g. granny farm - , Troyan horse - , ;
d) they can be formed by means of expressiveness, especially it is characteristic for forming interjections, e.g. My aunt!, Hear, hear ! etc

e) they can be formed by means of distorting a word group, e.g. odds and ends was formed from odd ends,

f) they can be formed by using archaisms, e.g. in brown study means in gloomy meditation where both components preserve their archaic meanings,

g) they can be formed by using a sentence in a different sphere of life, e.g. that cock wont fight can be used as a free word-group when it is used in sports (cock fighting ), it becomes a phraseological unit when it is used in everyday life, because it is used metaphorically,

h) they can be formed when we use some unreal image, e.g. to have butterflies in the stomach - , to have green fingers - - etc.
i) they can be formed by using expressions of writers or polititions in everyday life, e.g. corridors of power (Snow), American dream (Alby) locust years (Churchil) , the winds of change (Mc Millan).

Secondary ways of forming phraseological units are those when a phraseological unit is formed on the basis of another phraseological unit; they are:

conversion, e.g. to vote with ones feet was converted into vote with ones

feet;

b) changing the grammar form, e.g. Make hay while the sun shines is transferred into a verbal phrase - to make hay while the sun shines;

c) analogy, e.g. Curiosity killed the cat was transferred into Care killed the cat;

d) contrast, e.g. cold surgery - a planned before operation was formed by contrasting it with acute surgery, thin cat - a poor person was formed by contrasting it with fat cat;
e) shortening of proverbs or sayings e.g. from the proverb You cant make a silk purse out of a sows ear by means of clipping the middle of it the phraseological unit to make a sows ear was formed with the meaning .

f) borrowing phraseological units from other languages, either as translation loans, e.g. living space (German), to take the bull by the horns (Latin) or by means of phonetic borrowings meche blanche (French), corpse delite (French), sotto voce (Italian) etc.

An allusion is a figure of speech that makes a reference to, or representation of, a place, event, literary work, myth, or work of art, either directly or by implication. M. H. Abrams defined allusion as "a brief reference, explicit or indirect, to a person, place or event, or to another literary work or passage".[1] It is left to the reader or hearer to make the connection (Fowler); where the connection is detailed in depth by the author, it is preferable to call it "a reference".

In a freer informal definition, allusion is a passing or casual reference, an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication.

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20. Inversion
Inversion which was briefly mentioned in the definition of chiasmus is very often used as an independent SD in which the direct word order is changed either completely so that the predicate (predicative) precedes the subject, or partially so that the object precedes the subject-predicate pair. Correspondingly, we differentiate between a partial and a complete inversion. The stylistic device of inversion should not be confused with. grammatical inversion which is a norm in interrogative constructions. Stylistic inversion deals with. the rearrangement of the normative word order. Questions may also be rearranged: "Your mother is at home?" asks one of the characters of J. Baldwin's novel. The inverted 'question presupposes the answer with. more certainty than the normative one. It is the assuredness of the speaker of the positive answer that constitutes additional information which is brought into the question by the inverted word order. Interrogative constructions with. the direct word order may be viewed as cases of two-step (double) inversion: direct w / o ---> grammatical inversion ---> direct w / o.

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21. Transposition of syntactical structures

  Stylistic Inversion
Word-order is a crucial syntactical problem in many languages. In English it has peculiarities-which have been caused by the concrete and specific way the language has developed. O. Jespersen states that the English language ...has developed a tolerably fixed word-order which in the great majority of cases shows without fail what is the Subject of the sentence. This tolerably fixed word-order is Subject-Verb (Predicate)-Object (S-P-O). Further, Jespersen mentions a statistical investigation of word-order made on the basis of a series of {representative 19th per cent of all sentences containing all three members, while the percentage for Beowult was 16 and for King Alfreds prose 40.
Thus in Dickens much quoted sentence:
Talent Mr. Micawber has; capital Mr. Micawber has not.
The first and the last positions being prominent, the verb has the negative not get a fuller volume of stress than they would in ordinary (uninverted) word-order. In traditional word-order the predicates have and have not are closely attached to their object talent and capital. English predicate-object groups are so bound together that when we tear the object away from its predicate, the latter remains dangling in the sentence and in this position sometimes call forth a change in meaning of the predicate word. In the inverted word-order not only the object talent and capital become conspicuous but also the predicates has and has not.
The following patterns of stylistic inversion are most frequently met in both English prose and English poetry.
1. The object is placed at the beginning of the sentence(see the example above)
2. The attribute is placed after the word it modefies (postposition of the attribute). This model is often used when there is more than one attribute, for example:
Win finger weary and worn... (Thomas Hood)
Once upon a midnight dreary... (E.A.Poe)
3. a) The predicate is placed before the subject,as in
  A good generous prayer it was. (Mark Twain)
  b) the predicate stands before the link-verb and both are placed before the subject, as in Rude am I in many speech... (Shakespeare)
4. The adverbial modifier is placed at the beginning of the sentence , as in: Eagerly i wished the morrow. (Poe)
My dearest daughter, at your feet I fall.(Dryden)
A tone of most extraordinary comparison Miss Tox said in it.(Dickens)
5. Both modifier and predicate stand before the subject, as in:
In went Mr.Pickwick. (Dickens)
Down dropped the breeze...(Coleridge)
These five models comprise the most common and recognized models of inversion.
   Detached Construction
Sometimes one of the secondary parts of a sentence by some specific consideration of the writer is placed so that it seems formally independent of the word it logically refers to.Such parts of structures are called detached. They seem to dangle in the sentence as isolated parts.
The detached part, being torn away from its referent,assumes a greater degree of significance and is given prominence by intonation.The structural patterns of detached constructions have not yet been classified,but the most noticeable cases are those in which an attribute or an adverbial modifier is placed not in immediate proximity to its referent, but in some other position, as in the following examples:
1) Steyne rose up, grinding his teeth, pale, and with fury in his eyes.(Thackeray)
2) Sir Pitt came in first ,very much flushed, and rather unsteady in his gait. (Thackeray)
Sometimes a nominal phrase is thrown into the sentence forming a syntactical unit with the rest of the sentence,as in:
And he walked slowly past again, along the river - an evening of clear , quiet beauty,all harmony and comfort,except within his heart. (Galsworthy)
The essntial quality of detached construction lies in the fact that the isolated parts represent a kind of indepent whole trust into the sentence or placed in a position which will make the phrase (or word) seem indepentent.But a detached phrase cannot rise to the rank of a primary member of the sentence - it always remains secondary from the semantic point of view ,although structurally it possesses all the features of a primary member. This clash of the structural and semantic aspect of detached constructions produces the desired effect - forcing the reader to interpret the logical connections between the component part of the sentence. Logical ties between them always exist in spite of the absence of syntactical indicators.

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23. Repetition

Repetition
It has already been pointed out that repetition is an expressive means of language used when the speaker is under the stress of strong emotion. It shows the state of mind of the speaker, as in the following passage from Galsworthy:
Stop!- she cried, Dont tell me! I dont want to hear;
I dont want to hear what youve come for. I dont want to hear.
The repetition of I dont want to hear, is not a stylistic device; it is a means by which the excited state of mind of the speaker is shown. This state of mind always manifests itself through intonation, which is suggested here by the words she cried. In the written language, before direct speech is introduced one can always find words indicating the intonation, as sobbed, shrieked, passionately, etc.
J. Vandryes writes:
Repetition is also one of the devices having its origin in the emotive language. Repetition when applied to the logical language becomes simply an instrument of grammar. Its origin is to be seen in the excitement accompanying the expression of a feeling being brought to its highest tension.
When used as a stylistic device, repetition acquires quite different functions. It does not aim at making a direct emotional impact. On the contrary, the stylistic device of repetition aims at logical emphasis, an emphasis necessary to fix the attention of the reader on the key-word of the utterance. For example:
For that was it! Ignorant of the long and stealthy march of passion, and of the state to which it had reduced Fleur; ignorant of how Soames had watched her, ignorant of Fleurs reckless desperation...
- ignorant of all this, everybody felt aggrieved. (Galsworthy)
Repetition is classified according to compositional patterns. If the repeated word (or phrase) comes at the beginning of two or more consecutive sentences, clauses or phrases, we have anaphora, as in the example above. If the repeated unit is placed at the end of consecutive sentences, clauses or phrases, we have the type of repetition called epiphora, as in:
I am exactly the man to be placed in a superior position in such a case as that. I am above the rest of mankind, in such a case as that. I can act with philosophy in such a case as that. (Dickens)
Among other compositional models of repetition is linking or reduplication (also known as anadipIosis). The structure of this device is the following: the last word or phrase of one part of an utterance is repeated at the beginning of the next part, thus hooking the two parts together. The writer, instead of moving on, seems to double back on his tracks and pick up his last word.
Freeman and slave... carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary re-constitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes. (Marx, Engels)
Any repetition of a unit of language will inevitably cause some slight modification of meaning, a modification suggested by a noticeable change in the intonation with which the repeated word is pronounced.
What are the most obvious stylistic functions of repetition?
The first, the primary one, is to intensify the utterance. Intensification is the direct outcome of the use of the expressive means employed in ordinary intercourse; but when used in other compositional patterns, the immediate emotional charge is greatly suppressed and is replaced by a purely aesthetic aim, as in the following example:
THE ROVER
A weary lot is thine, fair maid,
  A weary lot is thine!
To pull the thorn thy brow to braid,
  And press the rue for wine.
A lightsome eye, a soldiers mien
  A feather of the blue,
A doublet of the Lincoln green
  No more of me you knew My Love!
No more of me you knew.
        (Walter Scott)
The repitition of the whole line in its full form requires interpretation. Superlinear analysis based on associations aroused by the sense of the whole poem suggests that this repetition expresses the regret of the Rover for his Loves unhappy lot. Compare also the repetition in the line of Thomas Moores:
Those evening bells! Those evening bells!
Meditation, sadness, reminiscence and other psychological and emotional states of mind are suggested by the repetition of the phrase with the intensifier those.
The distributional model of repetition, the aim of which is intensification, is simple: it is immediate succession of the parts repeated.
Repetition may also stress monotony of action, it may suggest fatigue, or despair, or hopelessness, or doom, as in:
What has my life been? Fag and grind, fag and grind. Turn the wheel, turn the wheel. (Dickens)
Here the rhythm of the repeated parts makes the monotony and hopelessness of the speakers life still more keenly felt.
The function of repitition is to be observed in Thomas Hoods poem The Song of the Shirt where different forms of repetition are employed.
Work- work-work!
  Till the brain begins to swim!
Work- work- work
  Till the eyes are heavy and dim!
Seam, and gusset, and band,
  Band, and gusset and seam,
Till over the buttons I fall asleep,
  And sew them on in a dream..   
Of course, the main idea, that of long and exhausting work, is expressed by lexical means: work till the brain begins to swim and the eyes are heavy and dim. Till, finally, I fall asleep. But the repetition here strongly enforces this idea and moreover, brings in additional nuances of meaning.
There is a variety of repetition, which we shall call root-repetition, as in:
To live again in the youth of the young. (Galsworthy) or,
He loves a dodge for its own sake; being...- the dodge rest of all the dodgers. (Dickens) or,
Schemmer, Karl Schemmer, was a brute, a brutish brute. (London)
In root-repetition it is not the same words that are repeated but the same root. Consequently we are faced with different words having different meanings (youth, young, brutish, brute), but the shades of meaning are perfectly clear.
Another variety of repetition may be called synonymical repetition. This is the repetition of the same idea by using synonymous words and phrases which by adding a slightly different nuance of meaning intensify the impact of the utterance, as in.
... are there not capital punishments sufficient in your statutes?
Is there not blood enough upon your penal code? (Byron)
Here the meaning of the words capital punishments and statutes is repeated in the next sentence by the contextual synonyms blood and penal code.
Here is another example from Keats sonnet The Grasshopper and the Cricket.
The poetry of earth is never dead...
The poetry of earth is ceasing never...
There are two terms frequently used to show the negative attitude of the critic to all kinds of synonymical repetitions. These are pleonasm. and tautology. The Shorter Oxford Dictionary defines pleonasm as the use of more words in a sentence than are necessary to express the meaning; redundancy of expression. Tautology is defined as the repetition of the same statement; the repetition (especially in the immediate context) of the same word or phrase or of the same idea or statement in other words; usually as a fault of style. Here are two examples generally given as illustrations:
It was a clear starry night, and not a cloud was to be seen.
He was the only survivor; no one else was saved.

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24. Antithesis. Climax. Suspense. Enumeration.

Antithesis
In order to characterize a thing or phenomena from a specific point of view, it may be necessary not to find points of resemblance or association between it and some other thing or phenomenon, but to find points of sharp contrast, that is, to set one against the other, for example:
A saint abroad, and a devil at home. (Bunyan)
Better to reign in hell than serve in heaven. (Milton)
These contrasting features are represented in pairs of words, which we call antonyms, provided that all the properties of the two objects in question may be set one against another, as saint- devil, reign- serve, hell- heaven.
Many word -combinations are built up by means of contrasting pairs, as lip and down, inside and out, from top to bottom and the like.
Stylistic opposition, which is given a special name, the term antithesis, is of a different linguistic nature: it is based on relative opposition which arises out of the context through the expansion of objectively contrasting pairs, as in:
Youth is lovely, age is lonely,
Youth is fiery, age is frosty. (Longfellow)
Here the objective contrasted pair is youth and age. Lovely and lonely cannot be regarded as objectively opposite concepts, but being drawn into the scheme contrasting youth and age, they display certain features, which may be counted as antonymical.
It must be remembered, however, that so strong is the impact of the various stylistic devices, that they draw into their orbit stylistic elements not specified as integral parts of the device. As we have pointed out, this often the case with the epithet. The same concerns antithesis. Sometimes it is difficult to single out the elements, which distinguish it from logical opposition.
Thus in Dickens A Tale of Two Cities the first paragraph is practically built on opposing pairs.
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, and it was the epoch of bell
This device is often signaled by the introductory connective but as in:
The cold in clime are cold in blood
Their love can scarce deserve the name
But mine was like a lava flood   
That boils in Etnas breast of flame. (Byron)
When but is used as a signal of antithesis, the other structural signal, the parallel arrangement, may not be evident. It may be unnecessary, as in the example above.
Antithesis is a device bordering between stylistics and logic. The extremes are easily discernible but most of the cases are intermediate. However, it is essential to distinguish between antithesis and what is termed contrast. Contrast is a literary (not a linguistic) device based on logical opposition between the phenomena set one against another, here is a good example of contrast.

Climax (Gradation)
Climax is an arrangement of sentences (or of the homogeneous parts of one sentence) which secures a gradual increase in significance, importance, or emotional tension in the utterance, as in:
It was a lovely city, a beautiful city, a fair city, a veritable gem of a city.
or in:
Ne barrier wall, ne river deep and wide,
Ne horrid crags, nor mountains dark and tall
Rise like the rocks that Hispanias land from Gaul. (Bayron)
Gradual increase in emotional evaluation in the first illustration and in significance in the second is realized by the distribution of the corresponding lexical items.
The words lovely, beautiful, fair, veritable gem in the first example and the relative inaccessibility of the barriers wall, river, crags, mountains together with the epithets deep and wide, horrid, dark and tall that make us feel the increase inimportance of each.
Logical climax is based on the relative importance of the component parts looked at from the point of view of the concepts embodied in them.
Thus, the following paragraph from Dickens Christmas Carol shows the relative importance in the authors mind of the things and phenomena described:
Nobody ever stopped him in the street tosay, with gladsome looks, My dear Scrooge, how are you? When will you come to me? No beggars implored him to bestow a trifle, no children asked him what it was oclock, no man or woman ever once in all his life inquired the way to such and such a place, of Scooge.
Emotional climax is based on the relative emotional tension produced by words with emotive meaning, as in the first example with the words lovely, beautiful, fair.
Of course, emotional climax based on synonymous strings of words with emotive meaning will inevitably cause certain semantic differences in these words- such is the linguistic nature of stylistic synonyms-, but emotive meaning will be the prevailing one.
Emotional climax is mainly found in sentences, more rarely in longer syntactical units. This is natural. Emotional charge cannot hold long.
What are the indespensable constituents of climax? They are:
a) the distributional constituent: close proximity of the component parts arranged in increasing order of importance or significance;
b) the syntactical pattern: parallel constructions with possible lexical repetition;
c) the connotative constituent: the explanatory context, which helps the reader to grasp the gradation, as no... ever once in all his life, nobody ever, nobody. No beggars (Dickens); deep and wide, horrid, dark and tall (Byron); veritable (gem of a city).
Climax, like many other stylistic devices, is a means by which the author discloses his world outlook, his evaluation of objective facts and phenomena.

Enumeration
Enumeration is a stylistic device by which separate things, objects, phenomena, properties, actions are named one by one so that they produce a chain, the links of which, being syntactically in the same position (homogeneous parts of speech), are forced to display some kind of semantic homogeneity, remote though it may seem.
Most of our notions are associated with other notions due to some kind of relation between them: dependence, cause and result, likeness, dissimilarity, sequence, experience (personal and /or social), proximity, etc.
Let us examine the following cases of enumeration:
There Harold gazes on a work divine,
A blending of all beauties; streams and dells,
Fruit, foliage, crag, wood, cornfield, mountain, vine
And chiefless castles breathing stern farewells
From gray but leafy walls, where Ruin greenly dwells. (Byron)
There is hardly anything in this enumeration that could be regarded as making some extra impact on the reader. Each word is closely associated semantically with the following and preceding words in the enumeration, and the effect is what the reader associates with natural scenery.
Enumeration is frequently used as a device to depict scenery through a tourists eyes, as in Galsworthys To Let:
Fleurs wisdom in refusing to write to him was profound, for he reached each new place entirely without hope or fever, and could concentrate immediate attention on the donkeys and tumbling bells, the priests, patios, beggars, children, crowing cocks, sombreros, cactus-hedges, old high white villages, goats, olive-trees, greening plains, singing birds in tiny cages, watersellers, sunsets, melons, mules, great churches, pictures, and shimming grey-brown mountains of a fascinating land.
The enumeration here is worth analyzing. The various elements of this enumeration can be approximately grouped in semantic fields:
1) donkeys, mules, crowing cocks, goats, singing birds;
2) priests, beggars, children, watersellers;
3) villages, patios, cactus-hedges, churches, tumbling bells, sombreros, pictures;
4) sunsets, swimming grey-brown mountains, greening plains, olive-trees, melons.
Galsworthy found it necessary to arrange them not according to logical semantic centres,- but in some other order; in one which, apparently, would suggest the rapidly changing impressions of a tourist. Enumeration of this kind assumes a stylistic function and may therefore be regarded as a stylistic device, in as much as the objects in the enumeration are not distributed in logical order and therefore become striking.

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28. Types of narrative.
Ellipsis
Break-in-the-narrative (aposiopesis)
Question-in-the-narrative
Represented speech
  Ellipsis
Ellipsis is a typical phenomenon in conversation, arising out of the situation. We mentioned this pecular feature of spoken language when we characterized its essential qualities and properities.
But this feature of spoken language assumes a new quality when used in the written language. It becomes a stylistic device is as much as it supplies suprasegmental information. An elliptical sentence in direct intercourse is not a stylistic device. It is simply a norm of the spoken language.
Let us take a few examples.
So Justice Oberwaltzer-solemnly and didactically from his high seat to the jury.(Dreiser)
One feels very acutely the absence of the predicate of this sentence. Why was it omitted? Did the author pursue any special purpose in leaving out a primary member of the sentence? Or it is just due to carelessness? The answer is obvious: it is a deliberate device. This particular model of sentence suggest the authors personal state of mind, vis. his indignation at the shameless speech of Justice. It is a common fact that any exicited state of mind will manifest itself in some kind of violation of the recognized literary sentence structure.
Ellipsis , when used as a stylistic device, always imitates the common features of colloqual language, where the situation predetermines not the omission of certain members of the sentence , but their absence. It would perhaps be adequate to call sentences lacking certain members incomplete sentence, leaving the term ellipsis to specify structures where we recognize a digression from the traditional literary sentence structure.
Thus the sentences See you to-morrow ., Had a good time?, Wont do., You say that? are typical of colloquial language. Nothing is omitted here . These are normal syntactical structures in the spoken language and to call them elliptical, means to judge every sentence structure according to the structural models of the written language. Likewise, such sentence as the following can hardly be called elliptical.
Theres somebody wants to speak you.
There was no breeze came through the open window.
(Hemingway)
Theres many a man in this Borough would be glad to have the blood that runs in my veins. (Cronin)
The relative pronouns who,which who after somebody, breeze, a man in this Borough could not be regarded as omitted-this is the norm of colloquial language, though now not in frequent use except , perhaps with the there is (are) constructions as above. This is due, perhaps, to the standardizing power of the literary language.
It must be repeated here that the most characteristic feature of the written variety of language is amplification , which by its very nature is opposite to ellipsis. Amplification generally demands expansion of the idea with as full and as exact relations between the parts of the utterance as possible . Ellipsis, on the contrary, being the property of colloquial language, doesnt express what can be easily be supplied by the situation. This is perhaps the reason that elliptical sentence are rarely used as a stylistic devices. Sometimes the omssion of a link -verb adds emotional colouring and makes the sentence sound more emphastic , as in these lines from Byron:
Thrice happy who, after survey
  of the good company, can win a corner.
Nothing so difficult as a begining.
  Denotes how soft the chin which bears his touch.
It is wrong to suppose that the omission of the link-verbs in these sentences is due to the requirements of the rythm.
Break-in-the-Narrative (Aposiopesis)
Aposiopesis is a-device, which dictionaries define as A stopping short for rhetorical effect. This is true. But definition is too general to disclose the stylistic functions of the device.
In the written variety, a break-in-the-narrative is always a stylistic device used for some stylistic effect. It is difficult, however,to draw a hard and fast distinction between break-in-the-narrative as a typical feature of lively colloquial language and as a specific stylistic device.
In the following example the implication of the aposiopesis is a warning:
If you continue your intemperate way of living, in six months time...
In the sentence:
You just come home or Ill...
the implication is a threat. The second example shows that without a context the implication can only be vague. But when one known that an angry father to his son said the words over the telephone the implication becomes apparent.
Break-in-the-narrative has a strong degree of predictability, which is ensured by the structure of the sentence. As a stylistic device it is used in complex sentences, in particular in conditional sentences, the if-clause being given in full and the second part only implied.
Sometimes a break in the narrative is caused by euphemistic considerations-unwillingness to name a thing on the ground of its being offensive to the ear, for example:
Then, mamma, I hardly like to let the words cross my lips, but they have wicked, wicked attractions out there-like dancing girls that-that charm snakes and dance without-Miss Moir with downcast eyes, broke off significantly and blushes, whilst the down on her upper lip quivered modestly. (Cronin)
Break-in-the-narrative is a device which, on the one hand, offers a number of variants in deciphering the implication and, on the other , is highly predictable. The problem of implication is, as it were, a crucial one in stylistics.What is implied sometimes outweighs what is expressed. In other stylistic devices the degree of implication is not so high as in break-in-the-narrative. A sudden break in the narrative will inevitably focus the attention on what is left unsaid. Therefore the interrelation between what is given and what is new becomes more significant, in as much as the given is what is said and the new - what is left unsaid. There is a phrase in colloquial English which has become very familiar:
Good intentions but-
The implication here is that nothing has come of what it was planned to accomplish.
Aposiopesis is a stylistic device in which the role of the intonation implied cannot be over-estimated. The pause after the break is generally charged with meaning and it is the intonation only that will decode the communicative significance of the utterance.
  Question-in-the-Narrative
Questions,being both structurally and semantically one of the types of the sentence,are asked by one person and expected to be answered by another. This is the main, and the most characteristic poetry of the question,i.e. it exists as a syntactical unit of language to bear this particular function in communication. Essentially, questions belong to the spoken language and presuppose the presence of an interlocutor, that is, they are commonly encountered in dialogue. The questioner is presumed not to know the answer.
Question-in-the-narrative change the real nature of a question and turns it into a stylistic device. Aquestion in the narrative is asked and answered by one and the same person, usually the author.
It becomes akin to a parenthetical statement with strong emotional implications. Here are some cases of question-in-the-narrative taken from Byrons Don Juan:
  1) For what is left the poet here?
   For Greeks a blush-for Greece a tear.
  2) And starting, she awoke, and what to view?
  Oh, Powers of Heaven. What dark eye meets she there?
  Tis-tis her fathers-fixd upon the pair.
As is seen from these examples, the question asked, unlike rhetorical questions, do not contain statements. But being answered by one who knows the answer, they assume a semi-exclamatory nature, as in what to view?
Sometimes question-in-the-narrative gives the impression of an intimate talk between the writer and the reader. For example:
Scrooge knew he was dead?Of course he did.How could it be otherwise? Scrooge and he were parthers for I dont know how many years. (Dickens)
Question-in-the-narrative is very often used in oratory. This is explained by one of the leading features of oratorical style-to induse the directs reactions to the connect of the speech. Questions here chain the attention of the listeners to the matter the orator is dealing with and prevent it from wandering. They also give the listeners time to absorb what has been said, and prepare for the next point.
Question-in-the-narrative may also remain unanswered, as in:
How long must it go on? How long must we suffer? Where is the end? (Norris)
These sentences show a gradual transition to rhetorical questions. There are only hints of the possible answers. Indeed, the first and the second questions suggest that the existing of affairs should be put an end to and that we should not suffer any longer. The third and the fourth questions suggest that the orator himself could not find a solution to the problem.
Represented Speech 
There are three ways of reproducing actual speech: a)repetition of exact utterance as it was spoken (direct spech), b)conversation of exact utterance into the relaters mode of expression (indirect speech) and c)representation of the actual utterance by a second person,usually the author, as if it had been spoken, whereas it has not really been spoken but is only represented in the authors words (represented speech)
To distinguish between the two varieties of represented speech we call the representation of the actual utterance through the authors language uttered represented speech, and the representation of the thoughts and feelings of the character from the authors word. Actually,direct speech is a quotation. Therefore it is always introduced by a verb like say, utter, declare, reply, exclaim, shout, cry, yell, gasp, babble, chuckle, murmur, sigh, call, beg, implore, comfort, assure, protest, object, command, admit and others. All these words help to indicate the intonation with which the sentence was actually uttered. Direct speech is always marked by inverted commas, as any quotation is. Here is an example:
You want your money back,I suppose, said George with a sneer.
Of course I do - I always did, didnt I? says Dobbin.
    (Thackeray)
Direct speech is sometimes used in the publicistic style of language as a quotation. The introductory words in this case are usually the following: as... has it, according to... and the like.
  In the belles-lettres style direct speech is used to depict a character through his speech.
  Direct speech can be viewed as a stylistic device only its setting in the midst of the author addresses the reader, we cannot classify the utterance as a direct speech. Direct speech is only the speech of a character in a piece of emotive prose.
We have indirect speech when the actual words of a character, as it were, pass though the authors mouth in the course of his narrative and in this process undergo certain chainges. The intonation of indirect speech is even and does not differ from the rest of the authors narrative. The graphical substitues for the intonation give way to lexical unit which describe the intonation pattern. Sometimes indirect speech takes the form of a precise in which only the main points of the actual utterance are given. Thus, for instance, in the following passage:
Marshalasked the crowd to disperse and urged responsible diggers to prevent any disturbance which would prolong the tragic force of the rush for which the publication of inaccurate was chiefly responsible.(Katherine Prichard) Represented speech exist in two varieties: 1)uttered represented speech and 2)unuttered represented speech.
a) Uttered represented speech
Uttered represented speech demands that the tense should be switched from present to personal pronouns should be changed from 1st and 2nd person to 3rd person as in indirect speech, but the syntactical structureof the utterance does not change. For example:
Could he bring a reference from where he now was? He could.(Dreiser)
An interesting example of three ways of representing an actual speech is to be seen in a conversation between Old Jolyon and June in Galsworthys Man of Property.
Old Jolyon was on the alert at once .Was nt the man of property going to live in his new house, then? He never alluded to Soames now but under this title.
No-June said- he was not; she knew that she was not!
How did she know?
She could not tell him , but she knew . She nearly for certain. It was most unlikely; circumtances had changed! The first sentence is the authors speech. In the second sentence Wasnt the man... there is uttered represented speech:the actual speech must have beenIsnt the.... This sentence is followed by one from the author: He never....
Then again comes uttered represented speech marked off in inverted commas, which is not usual. The direct speech No-, the introductory June said and the following inverted commas make the sentence half direct half uttered represented speech. The next sentence How did she know? and the following one are clear-cut models of uttered represented speech: all the peculiarities of direct speech are preserved, i.e. the repetition of she knew, the colloquial nearly for certain, the absence of any connective between the last two sentence and, finally, the mark of exclamation at the end of passage. And yet the tenses and pronouns here show that the actual utterance passes through the authors mouth.
  b) Unuttered or Inner Represented Speech
As has often been pointed out, language has two functions: the communicative and the expressive. The communicative function serves to convey ones thoughts, volitions, emotions and orders to the mind of a second person. The expressive function serves to shape ones thought and emotions into language forms. This second function is believed to be the only way of materializing thoughts and emotions. Without language forms thought is not yet thought but only something being sharped as thought. The thoughts and feelings going on in ones mind and reflesting some previous experience are called inner speech.
Inner represented speech, unlike uttered represented speech, expresses feelings and thoughts of the character which were not materialized in spoken or written language by the character. That is why it abounds in exclamatory words and phrases, elliptical constructions, breaks,and other means of conveying feelings, he can give vent to those strong emotions which he usually keeps hidden. Here is an example from Galsworthys Man of property:
His nervousness about this disclosure irritated him profoundly;
she had no business to make him feel like that - a wife and a husband being one person. She had not looked at him once since they sat down, and he wondered what on earth she had been thinking about all the time. It was hard, when a man worked hard as he did, making money for her-yes and with an ache in his heart-that she should sit there, looking-looking as if she saw the walls of the room closing in. It was enough to make a man get up and leave the table.
Inner represented speech, unlike uttered represented speech, is usually introduced by verbs of mental perception, as think,meditate,feel,occur (an idea occured to...), wonder, ask, tell oneself, understand and the like. For example:
Over and over he was asking himself: would she receive him? would she recognize him? what she should say to her?
Why werent things going well between them? he wondered.

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26. Phonetic stylistic devices.

The theory of sense - independence of separate sounds is based on a subjective interpretation of sound associations and has nothing to do with objective scientific data. However, the sound of a word, or more exactly the way words sound in combination, cannot fail to contribute something to the general effect of the message, particularly when the sound effect has been deliberately worked out.

This can easily be recognized when analyzing alliterative word combinations or the rhymes in certain stanzas or from more elaborate analysis of sound arrangement.

Onomatopoeia is a combination of speech sounds which alms at imitating sounds produced in nature (wind, sea, thunder, etc.) by things (machines or tools, etc.) by people (singing, laughter) and animals. There are two varieties of onomatopoeia: direct and indirect.

Direct onomatopoeia is contained in words that imitate natural sounds, as ding-dong, burr, bang, cuckoo.
Indirect onomatopoeia demands some mention of what makes the sound, as rustling of curtains in the following line An example is: And the silken, sad, uncertain rustling of each purple curtain (E. A. Poe), where the repetition of the sound [s] actually produces the sound of the rustling of the curtain.

Alliteration is a phonetic stylistic device which aims at imparting a melodic effect to the utterance. The essence of this device lies in the repetition of similar sounds, in particular consonant sounds, in close succession, particularly at the beginning of successive words: The possessive instinct never stands still (J. Galsworthy)
Rhyme is the repetition of identical or similar terminal sound combination of words

Identity and similarity of sound combinations may be relative. We distinguish between full rhymes and incomplete rhymes. The full rhyme presupposes identity of the vowel sound and the following consonant sounds in a stressed syllable, including the initial consonant of the second syllable.

Incomplete rhymes present a greater variety They can be divided into two main groups: vowel rhymes and consonant rhymes. In vowel-rhymes the vowels of the syllables in corresponding words are identical, but the consonants may be different as in flesh - fresh -press.

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