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1. Art of Literature. There are words that are difficult to define. "Literature" is one of them. Literature is a transmission of the feeling the artist has experienced (Lev Tolstoy). L shares
experience of people & it also shares people's emotions and attitudes. L differs from other arts - every kind of art has some main means of expression - in L it is a word, and a word isn't material, it is abstract. The word differs from all the other means of expression, because it can reach any sphere. But L belongs to art, because it expresses the world in images. It is aimed to create artistic images. L appeared in primitive society as folk an in the forms of songs, epic narratives, ballads.
L was connected with mythology, history, music. Literature may be about anything in the world. The matter what its about its about the human being. Its always the attitude of human beings towards thing that is being described. L relies upon many types of relationships, which may be described as the components of its creative trends. L is centered round the character. The writer creates the image of individual,   possessing peculiar features (because of this, may become a common noun - Don Juan). The character can be described diff-ty: directly and indirectly(characteristics given by other people, landscape, speech).The process of creating the work of L (sharing experience) can be described as a unity of 3 aspects: from the point of view of writer, reader, a work of art. Writer - a work of L depends on quality of the writer who produced it. It is the result of his intelligence, sensitivity. Reader - is a supreme judge, if we regard writer as a social being, every writer has his own readers. Work of art can be considered as an independent component. Every individual has his/her own approach to literature. It depends upon experience, attitude to life, community individual lives in, upon his/her desires. Literature is a reflection of life - it's bewildering as life itself. l) The majority of people go to the book for the plot - they like to read about events. Such people like detective stories (sequence of events that leads one to anticipate the development of the plot).2) Others go for the character - some of the human features that describe characters have fascination for us.3) We can go to a book for an exhibition of manners. We may approach the literature with none of these in our mind. Sometimes we come to understand that literature is an instrument of your mind &. heart In this one people go to literature to learn about the psychology of other human being, to learn about what makes people like or dislike some things. Showing the psychology of people is the main function of literature. It helps to understand what makes people behave in this or that way.
Its quite natural to suppose that the writer is related to the work of literature & through it to the reader. These are natural relations. But in the process of writing the writer is influenced by the reader, because he is writing for a certain reader. So the reader influences the writer.
Having written or in the process of creating a work of literature the writer has to take into consideration the laws of a certain genre, the laws of image development. The development of image has its own topic, so it influences the writer. Moreover the life the book has after having been written is different from what the writer wanted it to have, so it influences the writer. As the reader may he reaction to the work of literature may change through time it influences the work of art. Its the objective reality that serves as the background of the relationships.
Written literature is only a part. Folklore & other manifestations of literature have influenced it a great deal. Writing has brought literature many new qualities, but still as the manifestation of the work of literature, it has lost some of its natural qualities.
e.g. immediacy (the immediate influence it had upon the listener, because of the facial expression, gestures, melody, intonation)/ Instead of that writers try to use different means to make their writing more expressive. Through writing literature has acquired immortality & it can be, so to say, transferred in time & space.
























2. Types and genres of literature
There are many types, or genres, of literature. We often think of poetry, prose, and plays, and these genres can be broken down into more specific forms, such as: comedy, tragedy, epic, science fiction, romance, mystery, satire. Poetry is language in its most concentrated form. A poet uses the sounds, rhythms, and meanings of words to paint pictures with language. Prose: novels, short stories, or essays. Prose writers use language to create a mixture of characters, places, and events that construct an entire world on the page, and in the reader's mind. Plays are works of literature that are generally intended to be performed by actors in front of an audience. Dialog and plot are two of the key ingredients in creating a play. Readers of literature don't just read literature.  That statement has a two-part significance.  First, not all literature is similar; second, reading one genre is not the same as reading another. Different genres--that is, different types of literature such as epics, lyrics, sonnet, elegies, comedies, tragedies, novels, short stories, vignettes, essays, non-fiction prose, autobiographies--demand different ways of reading.  lyric, drama, and epic.
An epic is characterized by the action that should be entire; the character should be distinguished & episodes should easily arise from the main fable. But the main thing is that it renders life as something that happened to the characters or the author in the past & the author deals with it as with some clear-cut period of time. Novel, long story, short story, essay The epic, in the classical formulation of the three genres, referred to the "poetic epic." It was of course in verse, rather lengthy (24 books in Homer, 12 books in Virgil), and tended to be episodic. It dealt in elevated language with heroic figures. Epic: This long narrative is primarily written in third person. However, the epic poet makes his presence known, sometimes by speaking in first person. A lyric is a poem directly expressing the poets own thoughts & emotions. The direct appeal is the main that distinguishes a lyric from the epic. The lyric includes all the shorter forms of poetry Ballad, ode, elegy, sonnet etc. The poet writes the poem as his or her own experience; often the poet uses first person ("I"); however, this speaker is not necessarily the poet but may be a fictional character or person. Drama is letting ones character to speak without any interference of the author. The characters are obviously separate from the writer; in fact, they generally seem to have lives of their own. The writer is present. Drama, tragedy, comedy, family chronicle
















3. Different approaches to literary criticism
Every individual has his/her own approach to literature. It depends upon experience, attitude to life, community individual lives in, upon his/her desires.
Literature is a reflection of life its bewildering as life itself. 1.The majority of people go to the book for the plot they like to read about events. Such people like detective stories (sequence of events that leads one to anticipate the development of the plot).2. Others go for the character some of the human features that describe characters have fascination for us.3.We can go to a book for an exhibition of manners. Dickens. We may approach the literature with none of these in our mind.4. Sometimes we come to understand that literature is an instrument of your mind & heart. In this one people go to literature to learn about the psychology of other human being, to learn about what makes people like or dislike some things. Showing the psychology of people is the main function of literature. It makes people understand what makes people behave in this or that way. 4.Historical approach to literature is not a science. If a work of a scientist may become better, because the other scientist has investigated the same problem & written reports about it. The work of literature does not undergo such metamorphosis. The words of B. Shaw will never make the words of Shakespeare update. The work of literature will never become less interesting to the reader only because it was written several centuries ago. The work of literature remains fresh & keeps its quality because in it people can find their own experience, attitudes.The first approach of any work of literature is the approach to fiction as to narrative (the succession of events given by the author to explain what happened to this or that character). Still criticism of a work of art from this prospective should not take only the number of events the story contains, but also who the story-teller is: the author, one of the characters. Events may be given in a chronological or logical way. The 2nd approach deals with a work of literature as an exhibition of character. In this respect the work of art from the point of view of interrelations that exist. We criticize the book from the perspective what kind of individual every character was, what was his/her attitude, what were his/her ideals, how he tried to achieve his goals, etc. We should regard book as a gallery of characters, every character being distinct from the other ones. Why is the character unique? The 3rd approach: we can approach a book from the perspective of its being the exhibition of manners. We criticize it from the point of view of society, which is described, & from the point of view of cultural background, against which is the society described. The 4th approach: we can approach a book from the point of view of its being a vehicle of a certain philosophy of life. The 5th approach is a biographical approach. Many people prefer it. What influenced the author? What were his ideas? How were his ideas changed in the course of time? How is all this reflected in his works? The 6th approach is aesthetic. This is the approach that deals with the authors style that should be viewed:-as a set of devices the author uses to produce an impact on the reader - the personal style of the author. The most important approach to literary criticism is the personal style. Here we resort to the 7th approach comparative kind of criticism. The history of literature is a subject that deals with our attitude to the fiction of the past & present, which becomes actual for us, because of the actuality of the problem itself.         









4. The beginnings of English literature. The works of venerable Bede and Caedman.
The first works in English, written in Old English, appeared in the early Middle Ages(11-15th centuries) (the oldest surviving text is Cædmon's Hymn). The oral tradition was very strong in the early English culture and most literary works were written to be performed. Epic poems(Beowulf) were thus very popular and many, have survived to the present day. Much Old English verse in the extant manuscripts is probably a some kind of adaptation of the earlier Germanic war poems. When such poetry was brought to England it was still presented orally from one generation to another, and the constant presence of consonant rhyme helped the Anglo-Saxon peoples remember it. Such rhyme is a feature of Germanic languages and is opposed to vocalic rhyme of Romance languages. But the first written literature dates to the early Christian monasteries founded by St. Augustine of Canterbury and his disciples and it is reasonable to believe that it was somehow adapted to suit to needs of Christian readers. The Old English war poems, and to a larger extent all Germanic war poems, still smell of blood feuds and their consonant rhymes sound like the smashing of swords.There is always a sense of danger in the narratives.The glory of the beginning of the English literature belongs rather to the north than to the south it belongs to angles rather than to Saxons. At the beginning of the 7th century Northumbria gained a position of superior. 617 Edwin becomes the king & Britons, Mercians, Eastanglicans,Westsaxons submitted to him. There was time of peace that resulted in the development of literature & arts. In 1685 political supremacy of Northumbria passed away forever & for 2 more centuries the spiritual & intellectual forces that worked in Northumbria made it a centre from which the light of learning streamed over Western Europe. In the monasteries Jarrow spend his great days Bede Venerabilis. Benedict the founder of the monastery traveled to Rome 4 or 5 times & brought books, pictures & other works of art & he brought teachers with him the best ones. Bede is a proficient translator from Latin, Greek, & Hebrew. He is famous being a teacher. Among his numerous works one can find explanations & commentaries to the Bible, chronology, astrology, books of poetry & rhetoric. His favorite subject Ecclesiastical history of English People its about introduction of Christianity into England. He wrote also of nature. He knew that the earth was a sphere. He had a sense of latitude and the annual movement of the sun into the north and south hemispheres from the evidence of varying lengths of shadows. He knew that the moon influenced the cycle of the tides. Bede was brought up in the monasteries of Northumbria, where he received the best education of the time. He wrote mostly in Latin. Caedman lived in the 7th. He was a shepherd at Whitby, a famous abbey in Yorkshire. He composed in his native lang.He was no longer young when the gift of song came to him. He composed hymns and a poem, the Paraphrase Caedmon Hymn.This hymn has all the characteristic features of medieval English verse: alliteration, abrupt lines more like interjections, the absence of connecting particles, periphrasis (repetition of the same idea in various phrases).The structure is very much symmetrical & the refrains give it a jazzy quality. Cynewulf was a Mercian poet of the later part of the 8th century. The richness of his works and its high technical excellence marked his poetry as classic. His masterpiece The Dream of the Rood the story of crucifixion told by the Cross itself. It was usual for OE poetry to personify inanimate objects and endow them with gift for speech. Every line is divided by a gap; this characterizes medieval poetry as alliteration, rhythm, abrupt, short lines. But these lines are longer than in the works of earlier writers. . His work represents an advance in culture upon the more primitive poems by Caedmon.These poems are: Juliana, Elene, The Fates of the Apostles, and Christ

Old principles of versification.
Versification, principles of metrical practice in poetry. In different literatures poetic form is achieved in various ways; usually, however, a definite and predictable pattern is evident in the language. In ancient Greek poetry, the pattern was in the quantity of the syllables, i.e., the duration of the time required to express a syllable. In modern languages, stress has been substituted for quantity. The line or verse of poetry is a fundamental unit of meter and is divided somewhat arbitrarily into feet according to the major and minor stresses. A patterned arrangement of lines into a group is called a stanza. Rhyme is an important element in stanzaic structure. Chaucer is credited with inventing the first characteristically English stanza form, the rhyme royal. Later popular English forms were the ballad, the sonnet, and the stanza developed by Edmund Spenser, called Spenserian. Old English poetry is based upon one system of verse construction, which was used for all poems Types of versification (features of the verse): alliteration; the absence of connecting particles; expressive language means (tropes); abrupt lines, more like interjections; periphrasis; repetition + paraphrase (repetition of the same idea to avoid monotony); melodic nature; rhymes (not always, about 14th century); symmetrical structure ; a line consists of 2 half-lines, distiches ( `distik) with a pause or caesura [si:`zju@r@] in the middle of the line, each half-line has 2 accented syllables.





























5. Beowulf as a sample of Anglo-saxon epic. Its compmex structure and imagery.
The book in its early form belongs to very pagan time.Its a work of a Christian poet of the 8th or 10th century.An epic is a long narrative poem,composed in an elevated style, dealing with great deeds& achievements of a hero/heroes.The hero,Beowulf, is the main character of the poem. He represents the values of the heroic age.Beowulf & its characters appear to symbolize Christ gaining salvation for his people by his own death & descending into hell. Monsters represent the forces of evil. The whole poem represents the eternal struggle between forces of goodness & evil.It consists of 2 parts:1. King Hrodgar built a beautiful palace Heorot& his people feasted there daily.It was hateful for monster Grendel&in the night he came& devoured 30 people.It repeated until young Beowulf came with 4 companions to fight with monster.When the monster came,Beowulf seized monster's hand and tore it.Grendel went home to die.Beowulf was praised by the queen&people.But Grendels mother decided to revenge her son.She slaughtered one of the king's friends.But B.found the monster in the cave of the lake&killed her.He returned to the shore&fisted his victory.2. Beowulf appears as an aged King, he ruled Goths for 50 years and now gives his own life to save people from terrible dragon. People mourned him,built high and broad mound() to be seen by sailors.The 2 parts are not written in isolation. Glorifying the hero & culture is a typical picture of Germanic heroic age, the memory of which the English cherished as their own. English poet pictures pagan society strongly colored by Christian ideas. Christ-like B. fights the embodiment of evil & in the end sacrifices his life for the people.The 2 parts balance each other.There is a clear division between Bs youthful heroism as an  fearless warrior&his mature heroism as a reliable king.The two basic principles of the poem structure are:Repetition&Gradation.The peculiarity of the structure of the poem is the retrospective character of many episodes related to Beowulf. Some episodes are not connected with the main character, they convey the information about the life of the German tribes (details from the history of the royal family of Geats (Sweden).The device of parallelism is widely used. Its typical of epic works. The multiple repetition of the motives lays stress on definite episodes of the plot and deepens their implicit meaning:The theme of the blood feud sounds not once. Digressions are of two types: Connected with Nature: Nature itself &Fantastic creatures. Connected with Man: With the main character& With tribes history. They perform various functions: Introduce the prehistory of the characters, Foresee the characters future, Add to the main plot line, specifying some episodes. The poet painted a vast canvas of heroic deeds, a picture in which he glorified the past, but he never forgot to glorify his culture.Every poem glorifies the past, which belongs to the heritage of people. The heroic past of Gothic people was glorified in Beowulf. The 2 parts of Beowulf are balanced. The symmetry is not only a characteristic of each part, but it gives us 2 ages the old age & the young age of youth. These two ages are united by the heroic quality of life. The significance: 1) it tells the history of events; 2) it shows the history of the English language &. its development; 3) the first work of literature art, 4) the usage of alliteration,, metaphors, epithets, melodic elements, periphrasis, a lot of repetitions.

   




6. The development of English verse after the Norman conquest. Fables and lyrics.
It was influenced by Anglo-Saxon literature & it was reciprocal. We can not speak of dominating literature, but this influence was felt. It manifested itself in riddles. Riddles are both important for history & literature of the country. People at that time liked very much to entertain themselves with riddles, which were taken from the real life. Over a 100 riddles are preserved & only a few owe to Latin samples. The riddles are English in nature & this is quite understandable, because if they were not taken from the real life, people would not be able to solve them. In this respect riddles are evidence of the culture. The structure of the riddles is very much peculiar, because of the long sentences & because of their rhythm. They depend on alliteration & repetition as many English songs & verses.  The text of some riddles is so imperfect that we can know neither the merit nor the author. But still some of them show a great skill of workmanship. They reflect many traces of old folklore intimate picture of English life before the Norman Conquest. E.g. . .4 Riddles are both important for history & literature of the country. The most ancient forms of English folklore are charms:E.g. . .5 This charm belongs to one of the most ancient lines in English literature. Its difficult to determine the time when this or that piece of folklore was written, they belong to the manuscripts of the 10th century. In the charms there is a reflection of all pagan times& beliefs, & this means that Christianity won people to its sight very gradually. It also means that all beliefs, all superstitions were considered as pragmatically as a belief can be considered, because these superstitions do not really mean that there is a religious system in them. As far as literature goes charms & riddles are full of imagery in them. They contain synonyms & metaphors, personification is most often used as effective means to convey the meaning.
Octosyllabic couplet Alfred the Great (849-901)..6The Owl & the Nightingale     This shows us authors sympathy for the owl. The world is not ready to recognize the beauty of the owls soul. Nightingale insists upon her superiority. The whole poem is written as an argument. Each participant supports his own point of view. This poem shows one simple idea: pride comes before fall. In the lit-re of the townsfolk  the fable and fabliau appeared. fables were short stories with animals for characters and conveying a moral. Fabliau were funny stories about cunning humbugs and unfaithful wives of rich merchants. They were metrical tales brought from France













7. The peculiarities of the medieval period in Europe(feudalism, the church and the rise of the bourgeoisie) and its influence upon the development of English Lit-re.We should speak about 3 factors which influenced English literature.Christianity with its preaching of Christian love & moral improvement & the ideology of Christianity that gave rise to a multitude of legends, homilies ( ), sacred & scriptural poems. The ideals of Feudalism gave rise to knighthood rituals & consequently to songs of minstrels & gleemen. New class appeared Bourgeoisie.12th -14th centuries signify the formation of the English language & nation. This period is fully reflected in the works of Langland & Chaucer. Christianity was an important factor in shaping of the medieval outlook. Christianity which substituted paganism in the ancient world spread quickly throughout Europe. As there was a period of decay, no law, the rich lived vicious life, Christianity with its idealism & its sermon of brotherhood & equity could serve as an outlet for the suffering & deprived. Christian   community developed into an organization with strict laws & definite rules. In the 3rd century Christianity reached a new stage, the importance of this stage is great. There was a formation of a new class Clergy. It was important & great force as it interpreted God for people & they could translate peoples needs in fact. More over clergy was a great economical force. The German tribes who invaded the Empire did not know how to cultivate the land & the church was the only organization which could teach them how to do it. The monasteries were excellent farms, schools which protected science & art. In fact church made arts for its particular purposes. Still the medieval scholar did not look for the new facts, his task was to interpret ideas given by church & those who challenged these ideas were punished by inquisition. Church has no serious rival. It taught people to think in terms of a really conclusive end. Acc. To church God was the sovereign judge of all men. 
Feudal hierarchy: God-King (the owner of all land)-Duke-Count-Baron-Knight-Vassal. Fundamental to feudalism was getting the land from the king. Each of the vassals in the ceremony of homage undertook to serve as a lord & the lord in return promised his protection. So big vassals created lesser vassals. Society was divided into nobility, clergy & peasantry which in its turn were divided into serfs & yeomen (free).The lord could take the land back after the death of his vassal. Magna Carta was the 1st document of freedom & democracy. It was signed by Richard the Lion Heart.Feudalism gave rise to knighthood. A knight was a man of noble birth, usually mounted man, at arms, serving the King. System of chivalry meant that before becoming a knight man of noble birth was supposed to go through several stages. Stage of a page-Squire-Dubbed knight.The knight devoted his life to the defense of the distressed (), especially women; that came of the great image of the Virgin. Being dubbed into the knight ( ), he gave an oath to defend the holy church, Christianity, women, etc.







8. The peculiarities of Langlands Peter the plowghman(form and content)
The long reign of Edward 3rd was glorious & shameful. Great battles were won; captive kings were brought to England. Edward & his son were regarded as the 2 of the noblest knights in Europe. But the struggle between France & England was exhausting; miserable peasantry was obsessed with taxes, until at last they rose with revolution between countries. One of those who reflected this period was W. Langland. His work shows the powerful personality, gives us an idea of a person, who was a man of duty, who could get to the truth, investigate it. At 1st sight the poem is very simple & we can easily attribute it to the ghost of visions. They were very popular in literature. But its only at 1st sight. Langland differed from practically all the authors of that time. He kept the direct alliterative energy of the lines & he gave us an all-embracing scope of allegorical design. These two aspects are very much complementary & they add to the effect of the poem. His poem cant be described as the reflection of one mans experience, as a narration of one mans opinion. Its a reflection of a society, of a civilization.The author used a lot of personifications vices & virtues, conscience, reason; he enters more allegorical personages like the Holy Church. All these appear in his poem, they act, speak, interact. There are many French words & this shows that French entered into the everyday language of England.The use of alliteration.The opening lines show alliteration distinctly, but its steadily maintained through the thousands of lines of the poem.In his dream the poet sees a tower, a beautiful tower-resident place of Truth. And opposite the tower he sees in a deep & dark valley-resident place of Error (Sin), crowd of busy mortals, peasants whom he loved & pitied, lazy, sinful friars whom he detested, King Richard 3rd, a strange figure he himself, as he still lay sleeping, a beautiful lady Holy Church comes up to him & complains, that nobody listened to her teaching. He begged that having seen the truth he wanted to know the false & so avoid it. His request is granted & main error showed bribery. He tells us that Lady Bribery came to London to be married to Falsehood; she was received well at court. But in song 5 Reason is described as preaching to people God Judgment for their sins. Still 7 deadly sins (pride, Roth, greed, lust, gluttony, envy, laziness) repent. The composition of the poem seems to be peculiar, because the main character appears in the poem only after the deadly sins repent. Then he goes to seek for the Truth. The idea of pilgrimage was rather common for medieval literature. The poem is unique because the author does not describe human nature but abstract notions, which meet with common people. 7 sins also go with people to seek the Truth. No one knows the way; all inquiries are in vain. Peter the Plowman appears right in this place where his advice is sought for. People ask him to show them the way to the Truth.He says that if people help him to plough the land he will show them the way to Truth. Those who will not be engaged into plough should do other job. But some people wouldnt work. Peter becomes angry & says that they would starve. In the later part of the poem Peter is raised & ennobled until he becomes identified with Jesus the Christ. Peter the Ploughman as a work of literature tells us much about the author himself. Its a purely personal creation. The visions give us a reflection of common experience of its author Langland & the whole society & civilization. Langland summarizes the whole epoch of English literature & life as well.This work is a kind of development of a new genre of literature Medieval Sermon. In this very popular form of expression, preaches the natural tendency to deal with abstract qualities, virtues & vices was quite limited by the processes of Christian Methodology. Nobody knows how 7 sins looked like, but Langland dramatizes & gives a picture of this or that thing. Langland tried to translate abstract notions into terms of peoples own experience.

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11.The R movement in Europe. The peculiarities of the R in England. Drama as the main manifestation of the R spirit.
The epoch of R covered most countries of WE.It included people from diff countries, having distinct national traditions.R has given us the most flattering conception of human possibilities.A man as the most perfect creation of God & at the same time the weakest spiritually creature on earth was a distinct char-tic of R,its philosophy&its code of behavior &. life. The R began in Italy as a new kind of consciousness. The R in England took place from the early 16th century to the early 17th century.R in England was caused by the spread of R learning and ideology from Italy, where it developed (14th - 17th).First R was described by Francesco Petrarca. When Petrarca & later humanists expressed their hopes they did it in images of 3 "R": revival, renewal & rebirth, It  was the revival of ancient classical culture.R influenced painting, sculpture, literature and architecture. Paintings became more realistic and not only on religious topics. R architects, studying the survived monuments of antiquity mastered their principles.They didnt copy only originals, but also went on creating new masterpieces.Never before had Europe been inspired by such a multitude of ideas, inspirations & hopes.In Britain, there was a flowering in lit-re and drama.Freedom&choice enabled human being to free himself of domination of the church&sin.&now men had to give immediate solutions to all the problems of existence. Before it the church had practically prescribed the human behavior in all spheres of life. Now human being has to find his own way of life&lots of diff thinkers & artists appear - Time produced The Genius.One of the most outstanding writers, who began breaking out from the medieval civilization,was Dante("The Divine Comedy").D included in his comedy all he knew of medieval history, science, theology, philosophy etc.It's the lst presentation of an    individual (D himself). The hero represents all aspects of life. Here one can stand for all men, man is an individual. In the poem we find all the experience he gained during his journey. We      get acquainted with his pain,sorrow,joy.There are not only portraits, descriptions of nature&diff places. We come to know D himself most fully.The book is highly symbolic.Dark woods symbolize a superstition,which caused char-r's suffering&anguish after the death of Beatrice. The figure of Virgil stands for the philosophic & scientific lessons, which saved the char-r from despair&enabled him to enter the path of truth.These lessons help to suppress his vices& passions.Beatrice means theology&faith which lighted his road to peaceful contemplation. Dante manifests the appearance of new factor of humanity&the appearance of public opinion. He provided his own point of view&the relationship b/w opposing factors. Here the individual comes to the foreground&the authority of the church - background. It was the epoch of freedom& limitation - paradox - the essence that a man is weak.Every person should be well born, trained in horsemanship,in soldiery,knowledgeable in 1-re&painting,sweet with ladies etc-the lst steps to a spiritual ideal.There's the feature that sums up all the previous-grace.Still it was the epoch of genius,great individuals,great achievements,great discoveries.
















12. Shakespeares sonnets. The structure of the E.sonnet as a reflection of its philosophical character. Sh.was born on 23 of April 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. Sh attended grammar school, but his formal education proceeded no further. In 1582 he married Anne Hathaway&had 3 children with her. Around 1590 he left his family behind and traveled to London to work as an actor and playwright. Public and critical acclaim quickly followed, and Sh eventually became the most popular playwright in England and part-owner of the Globe Theater. His career bridged the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I and he was a favorite of both monarchs. Wealthy and renowned, Sh retired to Stratford and died in 1616.Sh's works were collected & printed in various editions in the century   following his death.Sonnets are a very important part of Sh creations.They express the vision of life.A sonnet is a fourteen-line lyric poem, traditionally written in iambic meter-that is,in lines ten syllables long, with accents falling on every 2nd syllable. The sonnet form first became popular during the Italian Renaissance&was developed by the poet Petrarch.Then it was spread throughout Europe to England.Two kinds of sonnets were most common in English poetry&they take their names from the greatest poets:the Petrarchan sonnet and the Shakespearean sonnet.The Petrarchan sonnet is divided into 2 main parts,called the octave and the sestet.Each part of the sonnet has a specific rhyme scheme&a specific purpose.The octave is eight lines long&typically follows a rhyme scheme of ABB AABBA/ABBACDDC.The sestet occupies the remaining six lines of the poem& typically follows a rhyme scheme of CDCDCD/CDECDE.The purpose of   the octave is to present the situation or a problem&the purpose of the sestet is to comment on the situation or problem posed in the octave.The Sh sonnet is divided into four parts.The first three parts are each four lines long&are known as quatrains,rhymed ABAB; the fourth part is called the couplet&is rhymed CC.The Sh sonnet is often used to develop a sequence of metaphors or ideas,one in each quatrain,while the couplet offers either a summary or a new take on the preceding images or ideas.116.This sonnet attempts to define love,by telling both what it is and is not.In the lst quatrain,the speaker says that love-"the marriage of true minds''-is perfect and unchanging;it doesn't "admit impediments," and it doesn't change when it finds changes in the loved one. In the 2nd quatrain, the speaker tells what love is through a metaphor:a guiding star to lost ships ("wand'ring barks")that is not susceptible to storms (it "looks on tempests and is never shaken").In the 3rd quatrain,the speaker again describes what love is not: it is not susceptible to time.Though beauty fades in time as rosy lips and cheeks come within "his bending sickle's compass," love does not change with hours and weeks: instead, it "bears it out even to the edge of doom.What gives this poem its rhetorical & emotional power is not its complexity but the force of its linguistic & emotional conviction. Sh sonnets, 154 in number, can be viewed from diff perspectives. The collection can be viewed as a communicative block (a story of a poet & his predicament) encompassing other overlapping stories about Love, Time, Friendship, each having a pivot & being represented as a web of utterances related to the pivot. It's a story of a person's life in all its complexity. It's the story of his attitude to life as such. He is very much afraid of death, of time, being a man of R epoch,he can't bear any limitations. For him Time is an unsurpassable limitation. In some sonnets he shows how embarrassed he is. He invents certain means. First, it's his verses which can save not only him but also his beloved. Person may die but the sonnets remain & these sonnets can make his image, his friend, his epoch immortal


















13. The comedies of the Shakespeare
Shakespeare William Shakespeare was born on 23 of April 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. Sh attended grammar school, but his formal education proceeded no further. In 1582 he married Anne Hathaway [æ] and had 3 children with her. Around 1590 he left his family behind and traveled to London to work as an actor and playwright. Public and critical acclaim quickly followed, and Sh eventually became the most popular playwright in England and part-owner of the Globe Theater. His career bridged the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I and he was a favorite of both monarchs. Wealthy and renowned, Sh retired to Stratford and died in 1616. Sh. wrote chronicals when he was young and merry; unspoiled by life, misfortunes- he wrote comedies. In middle ages he wrote tragedies. When he became old and wise he began to write tragy-comedies Peculiarities of comedies: themes: love, friendship, brotherhood, kinship; major theme a human being is a creator of his own happiness. Characters strong, witty, kind, energetic. Much attention should be paid to Shs women. They are all equal to men and surpass them somehow (Viola). A happy ending, usually involving marriage for all the unmarried characters. Sh comedies also tend to have: a struggle of young lovers to overcome difficulty that is often presented by elders; separation and unification; mistaken identities, disguises (); a clever servant; heightened tensions, often within a family; multiple plots. The scene is usually set in some imaginary country, and the action is based on stories that are almost fairy-tales. But within these non-realistic settings and plots are placed true-to-life characters depicted with the deep insight into human psychology. Each comedy has a main plot and one or two sub-plots, and sometimes it is the sub-plot we pay most attention to. The comic characters of these plays always have an English flavour, even if the scene is laid in Athens, Illyria [I'liriə].
All the plays are written in easy-flowing verse and light prose (the level of intelligence, social status or love + smth worthy/everyday life). The text is full of jokes and puns, metaphors, metonymies. All the comedies tell of love and harmony, at first disturbed, finally restored. In them Sh often treats one of his favourite motifs: the right of an individual to free choice in love, despite the conventions and customs of the time. To emphasize this point, Sh more often embodies that tendency in a female character; his typical comedy heroines are brave, noble, full of initiative and free in speech. Another motif is the contrast between appearance and reality. Sh makes us see the importance of self-knowledge. In the complicated plots of his comedies the heroes and heroines select wrong partners so often because they have formed wrong opinions about their own characters. However, Sh treats their mistakes good-humouredly, and the comedies end happily with the characters understanding themselves and those they love, and everything is brought to a harmonious conclusion. Sh borrowed plots, he introduced some changes + filled it with his own characters. Comedies should be romantic, with humorous moments.
"TWELFTH NIGHT" This comedy is built around the typical Shakespearian conflict between true and false emotion. Duke Orsino tries to convince himself that he is in love with Countess Olivia. But Olivia is in deep grief for her dead brother, having renounced all joy of life. In Sh's opinion this is treachery () to human nature, a view that is shared by Sir Toby Belch and Maria [mə`raiə], the comic ch-rs that personify the optimism of the Renaissance. "The villain of the piece" is Malvolio [mæl'vouljou], a hypocrite[i]; in this figure Sh caricatures rigid Puritan ethics, showing the contrast between Malvolio's outward morality and his inner dishonesty, cruelty and stupidity. Sh's irony in depicting Malvolio is not bitter, and for all our antipathy to him, Malvolio remains a humorous rather than a satirical figure; otherwise the light vein () of the play would be unbalanced. He is placed somewhere apart. He is a pivot.After the plot has been quite tangled up (), its solution is provided by the twin sister and brother, Viola ['vaiələ] and Sebastian [si'bæstjən]; the marriage of Orsino to Viola and Sebastian to Olivia brings the desired happy ending. Viola is one of the famous Shakespearian unique comedy heroines, a true woman of the Renaissance: she is brave, adventurous, clever, witty, and capable of deep feeling. But she is static as in fairy-tales. She makes the comedy romantic. We see that in "12th Night" 3 types of emotion are contrasted: the active love of Viola, the self-inducted infatuation () of Orsino, and the so-called "love" of Malvolio, born out of his desire for social elevation ().The play is written with great skill; the comic sub-plot of Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, Maria and Malvolio is intermingled with the lyrical story that forms the main plot. The song of Feste in "12th Night" are probably the best Sh ever wrote. The wisest of all, he is able to see through all pretence. An onlooker in all the events, he is the only character who finds no personal happiness in the final count. He gains nothing for himself, and the merry comedy ends with his sad song about "the rain that raineth every day"=tears, monotony of life, coming disaster. Feste is closer to Sh, he gives grains of wisdom.
What is Twelfth Night?The title of the play comes from the twelve days of Christmas festival which were known for their wild celebration. The last of these days in particular was renowned for its hedonistic abandon.




















































14.Shakespeare's great tragedies.Sh's tragedies appeared in the later period of his creative life.They can be seen on diff levels&that makes them suitable for diff audiences.They can be seen as simple moralistic tales of good and evil.Being more closely examined they present a picture of inner conflicts, tormenting heroes&bringing them to disaster. In every tragedy Sh explored major human passions. This doesn't mean that he doesn't describe other passions, but these passions are submitted to the main one &enhance it.In his tr-dies Sh tries to give the answer to all the questions torturing human mind."Romeo&Juliet"-major passion is the feeling of love. People begin with liking,it develops ,become infatuated,possessiveness,jealousy,degradation of love.This tr-dy is all about love. Love isn't as simple as it seems.Speaking about "Hamlet" we can't speak about the leading passion."Hamlet" describes a conflict b/w two sets of values, two manifestations of human consciousness. It's a conflict b/w a free mind being chained by conservative traditions&ideology depending upon some accepted regulations of society, some attitudes to people. It's ever living dissatisfaction of an intellectual h being made to act as it was prescribed by the situation that had been created by someone else. Hamlet tries to clarify the situation&he wants to understand it better. He tries to overcome natural indecision,because being a man of ideas he knows that hint is not enough. Laertes is not tortured by any doubts: his actions are predetermined by regulations. Hamlet is not so-he is a human being&he wants to prove that Claudius is guilty. People consider hamlet to be insane&neurotic. Against this background he sees how people react.He comes to understand that all the institutions&beliefs people have are false - he is shocked by this because his new humanistic idea doesn't have any basis.The more he gets involved the more he gets disappointed in a human being.It's not difficult for Hamlet to solve the situation.It's very difficult for him to solve it in a new vision. Hamlet deliberately prolongs the time of his suspicions.When Claudius finds out that Hamlet is dangerous, he ships him away from the country.Paradox-Hamlet's philosophy, which is close to many people brings him to destruction. He gives up his ideals to come back to Earth & to solve the situation. So Hamlet acts decisively, he is very clever, he returns to Denmark. Then he has to suffer the death of Ofelia & he is moved beyond measure of suicide.He is very much upset by the reaction of Laertes. Nevertheless he solves situation in action&he puts the bearing responsibilities of a prince - kills the king. In the play Hamlet repeats the word "man". His attitude to man as a h being points the departure. Hamlet understands that the laws that determined the life of people are unjust, that wisdom is helpless when it tries to deal with tyranny, cruelty, that these are the integral part of human life.Thats the main reason for his melancholy.
























15. John Milton as a controversial figure in lit-re, whose life was a drama in 3 acts. (1608 1674).He was an English poet&political writer. His most popular work is Paradise Lost, which was written in 1667 & revised in 1674. Then in 1671 he wrote Paradise regained & Samson Agonistes, which were published in one volume. Milton is the most dramatic figure in all the English literature. Critics call him the battling Milton, because his life was a drama of 3 acts. His soul was divided between 2 great aspirations&that was his tragedy. It was a wrestle between his pure poetic genius, which is clearly seen in his early writings&the puritan spirit of righteousness that was fully summoned in him by the Civil war.He suppressed poetry in his veins until the cause was lost. He set himself in seclusion to the task envisioned long before the epic, in which he hoped to justify the conclusions of his soul. His life was a drama in 3 acts: the 1st one discovers Milton in the calm&peaceful retirement in his fathers home at Horton, where he wrote beautiful poems, full of elegant metaphors&poetic expressions. The 2nd act is the foul atmosphere of Civil war, the atmosphere of hatred that he breathed. He goes to participate in the war on the side of puritans & acted as Cromwells secretary. At that time wrote political pamphlets, trying to defend the nation. He summoned all his talent to prove that a nation has a right to execute Charles I and this was considered as a murder by the rest of the world. The blind & friendless he writes his Paradise lost, Paradise regained & Samson Agonistes. These are the works that shows the great talent of the poet, who rose up alone against the foreign world. His wife left him soon & it was quite a blow for him, because of his puritan vision of life.This was followed by the fierce pamphlets on divorce, addressing to the parliament. His wifes comeback & their reconciliation seem to be described in the Paradise lost, where the repentant Eve seeks comfort & forgiveness from Adam. Milton worked hard for Cromwells party& under Cromwell he wrote several pamphlets to defend the idea of revolution & the choice of English people. These works were written in Latin & to this period of time we can attribute Miltons sonnets & these sonnets may also serve as a memorial of the time. But the devastating times were coming (1st marriage unhappy, 2nd marriage was blighted by the death of his wife). Loss of sight, the overthrow of the puritan party, the captivity of practically all his friends, final retirement in loneliness were the influences that changed his attitude to life & gave him this promethean grandeur of the poet, who rose up alone against the foreign world.Milton at the age of 52 was reborn as a poet.For 10 more years he dictated his works, which made English literature unforgettable for practically all nations in the world.


























16.Paradise lost-the great epic of obedience and disobedience.
It was published in 1667. It took its final form between the Restoration & the Great Plague. In 1637 when Milton was in Italy he had the idea of a great national epic. Then he changed his mind & started planning a great biblical play. 1642 he had an outline for himself a tragedy of Adam imparadised. Circumstances did not allow Milton to carry out his plan he decided to frame his poem on epic lines again. Paradise lost was written in blank verse & is considered to be the 1st considerable example of that kind of literature.  Paradise lost is divided into 12 books. With the greatest dignity of thought & language it expresses the circumstances of the fall of the man. The fact remains that the 1st 2 books of the work, though in fact nothing more than a gigantic introduction, are the richest part in the literary sense. The description of the Pandemonium is the most important place of the book. Miltons description of battles between the angels, the forces of God & the followers of Satan reminds the earthly battles.Milton himself was a combination of a person, who supported the principles of renaissance&his idea of freedom was very much similar to many great scholars of renaissance. But on the other hand he was a puritan, a man, who was to impose certain restrictions on the freedom of human being.Milton makes us believe that Adam represents the whole mankind&he stands for a series of Falls: 1st-his own Fall as an individual; 2nd-hes responsible for those who come after. Adam stands for Miltons own ideas of puritan fall, failure & revolution.The epic reveals the contradiction that tortures the author: dissatisfaction with Gods law vs. importance of obedience to God - M presents us 2 moral paths after the Fall: like Satan = to insist on disobedience&degradation and like Adam = to repent and redeem.While Adam and Eve are the first humans to disobey God, Satan is the first of all Gods creation to disobey. His decision to rebel comes only from himselfhe was not persuaded or provoked by others. Also, his decision to continue disobeying God after his fall into Hell ensures that God will not forgive him. Adam and Eve, on the other hand, decide to repent for their sins and seek forgiveness. Unlike Satan, Adam and Eve dont know that their disobedience will be corrected through generations of toil on Earth. This path is obviously the correct one to take: the visions in Books XI and XII demonstrate that obedience to God, even after repeated falls, can lead to humankinds salvation. The poem insists that all events are brought about by choice. Satan chooses to rebel, Adam and Eve choose to eat the apple, knowing the consequences. Every man and angel has free will. At the same time, God knows everything that is to happen. Everyone makes his or her own decisions. That means no one can blame anyone else for what happens. But there is a great deal of blaming in the story. Only when people accept responsibility for their own choices they find peace within themselves and forgiveness and mercy from God. Everything is arranged in an order, beginning with God at the highest point of all, going down through the angels to man, and from man down to beasts and plants. Each part of the hierarchy has its own order: in Heaven, the angels are lower than God and must take their orders from him. On earth, Adam is closer to God than Eve, and she must take her orders from him. The poem is about the violation of the order, first by Satan, then by Eve, and then by Adam, who puts Eve ahead of God.






18. The development of the novel. Daniel Defoe: the use of detail to ensure credibility.
Every age has its favorite genre:for Renaissance its drama & the 18th century was represented by Novel. The novel as a genre belongs to fiction. The novel appeared at the turn of the 18th century.The novelist deal with men in a specific place & time.The novelist is very much conscious of time.Still the Shakespearian drama had a great influence upon the novel,as Shakespeare&his contemporaries were able to create life-like characters.Every novel should be populated with characters, who serve as pivots. The novel & the plot evolve around a character. The novel imitates life & at the same time it may be regarded as a model of life.The novelist is able to depict any relationships of life: man-man, man-society, man-nature, man-sign etc. Only novel can afford it, because of its unlimited size. The novel may be regar The novel imposes its own moral code.Daniel Defoe (1661 1731) was born in a family of a butcher in London.He tried his hands at all sorts of things until he became a journalist. He engaged himself in pamphlet writing. He was a man of extraordinary industry& wrote a lot of books.Defoe relies upon facts. Its not the situation thats life-like, but the facts that make it so. When Defoe wrote the 1st part of Robinson Crusoe,he was 59. Robinson Crusoe is the story of an Englishman who travels abroad. He is trying to increase his wealth by trade.His father wants him to become a lawyer, but Robinson runs away from home, and his adventures begin: he is shipwrecked several times.But once after another shipwreck he finds himself on a desert island. Robinson settles there.One day he saves a man from cannibals who becomes him a friend,Friday.He becomes a devoted servant and companion to his master. After many years Robinson and Friday the ship takes Robinson to England.
All the problems raised in the novel are urgent & at the same time Crusoe is mostly a prototype of Englishman of the 18th from lower classes who is characterized by strong sense of  personal responsibility.Hes self-reliant, energetic, a person who is in direct relation with God.The idea of the shipwreck on the `desert island comes from a real-life adventure of a Scotch sailor who lived on a desert island 4 years and 4 months, but the bulk of the story comes from Defoes imagination. The novel is a praise to human labour and the triumph of Man over nature. Labour and fortitude ( ) help Robinson (R) to bear hardships. Defoe was a great master of realistic detail,the book is very realistic.The reader follows Rs every step as he creates a life for himself on the island. Due to it the reader is involved not only in the physical world, but to Rs thoughts and torments as well. The 1st Person narration also adds realism to the events.The charm of the novel lies in R as a person. Defoe shows the development of his hero.At the beginning of the story we see an unexperienced youth, who then becomes a strong-willed man, able to overcome all the misfortunes of his unusual destiny.He knew that he must not give way to self-pity or fear, or to lose himself in mourning for his lost companions. R's most characteristic trait is his optimism.Sometimes of course, especially during earthquakes or when he was ill, panic  overtook him, but never for long. He had confidence in himself and believed it was within the power of man to overcome all difficulties and hardships. Another of Crusoe's good quality-ability to put his whole heart into everything he did. He was an enthusiastic worker and could manage with everything.Defoe's Crusoe like Defoe himself is typically bourgeois.He is very practical. He doesnt pay attention to the beauty of the island but he regards it as his personal property. He is pride that everything around him belongs to him. This is also seen in the fact that he decides to keep the money he finds in the ship,although he knows that it will be of no use to him on the island.Crusoe is full of religious superstitions. At the thought that his terrible dream (when he was feverish) might come true he is terrified. He believes in God and in the hand of Providence. In desperate moments he turns to God for help. Crusoe was a very religious man. He can be described as Gods Englishman, as he believes, that God helps those who help themselves. The sense of partnership of God & man never leaves Crusoe.











19. Jonathan Swifts Gulliver travels and its allegoric implications. The use of proportion to ensure credibility(1667 1745) He wrote a lot of books. The main ones are Battle of the books, Tale of a Tub, Gulliver travels. Swift inherited from Defoe: true-to-life details, but if Defoe uses enumeration, Swift resorts to comparison as the main means for creating his images. Sometimes he compared things&events,belonging to the same class,sometimes he used analogy for comparing things of different classes,& very often he used contrast. He developed Defoes devices that were meant to create perfect credibility.One can find out that GT is the most savage satire on human race.The life of Jonathan Swift was very unhappy. He was born several months after his fathers death. He graduated from the university with little credit&then compensated this by years of studies. His attitude to humanity was formed by the bitterness of his own expectations.It was his critical mind&the developing feeling of hatred for the humanity being an animal. His early books (Battle of the books, Tale of a Tub) describe humanity being not at its very best.Gulliver Travelsappeared when Sw.was already middle-aged&then he became famous almost immediately. GT tells us about 4 journeys made by the main character. It describes Gullivers voyages to exotic countries. He made use of the fact that his country-men were very much interested in traveling. His intention was to show the most bitter satire on the political, moral & social drawbacks. Swift commented on life & compared these exotic countries to the life that people led in England. On the first voyage Gulliver is shipwrecked and finds himself in Lilliput.To his surprise, people are only "six inches high" there but they have the same vices and faults as the English:shallow interests,corrupted laws and evil customs.Therere 2 struggling parties:the Big-Endians&Little-Endians, distinguish themselves only by the high and low heels on their shoes.They drive the country into war over the question of whether an egg should be broken on its big or its little end.After giving assurances of his good behavior,G. is given a residence in Lilliput and becomes a favorite of the court. From there, the book follows Gulliver's observations on the Court of Lilliput,which is intended to satirize the court of George I.Sw.hated the English state system and looked for a better one. He believed in an ideal enlightened monarch. Gulliver meets such a king on his second voyage to Brobdingnag.This is a country where giants live. Gulliver appears as ridiculous to these people of enormous size as the Lilliputians seemed to him. The country of the giants is governed by common sense, reason and justice which is not the case in England,but even a clever king cannot do much for his people. When Gulliver's box is carried off by an eagle and dropped into the sea he is rescued by an English ship. It takes Gulliver a long time to get used to the littleness of the houses, trees and the people once back in England. As far as the people are concerned it is their moral littleness that surprises Gulliver. In the third part the author takes Gulliver to Laputa and the Academy in Lagado.In this part Swift laughs at every kind of impractical science and philosophy. The Laputans had ill-built houses without one right angle.They are odd, clumsy and unhandy people in their common actions and behavior.Laputa is a flying island. It may be put in a position that it can take away the lands underneath "of the benefit of the sun and the rain and afflict the inhabitants with death and diseases".The flying island helps the king to exploit his people. In the description of the Academy Swift satirizes all kinds of inventors for their attempts to improve everything. They want to extract sunbeams from cucumbers, to soften marble for pillows, to simplify the language by abolishing words, etc. The Academy of Lagado is Swift's parody on projectors whose "science" has nothing to do with real life. It is in Book IV that Swift's satire is the bitterest. Gulliver finds himself in a land ruled by Houyhnhnms I'huihnaniz], intelligent and virtuous horses who are ignorant of such vices as stealing, lying, love of money.The rest of the population is made up of Yahoos, ugly creatures that look like human beings in appearance and possess all the human vice. They are greedy, envious and malicious. Gulliver admires the simple modest way of life of the Houyhnhnms and is disgusted with the Yahoos who remind him so much of his countrymen that he hates. Swift used his favorite weapon laughter to mock at bourgeois reality. Swift wanted to prove that clever horses were wise, honest, truthful, because they did not have pockets. They couldnt pile up problems. They had no sense of money. They knew nothing about property. It did not guide their lives & they did not depend upon it. But Yahoos were human beings without reason. All of a sudden Gulliver, a human being, comes to the country. Horses cannot accept Gulliver because he very much reminds them of yahoos, & yahoos cannot accept him because he looks too civilized. Gullivers superiority in reason is recognized by the clever horses & all of a sudden it causes much embarrassment. The horses cannot understand how a human being makes use of a reason. Horses did not know anything about cunning & wickedness. This enables Swift to explain everything in the tale. Swift argues through images, gives images to prove who is right & who is wrong. This device was absolutely new. He uses & arranges facts like Defoe, but invents proportion, comparison, uses images, not words as arguments.

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20. Samuel Richardson- the first novelist. Popularity and oblivion (1689 1761)
He may be considered the 1-st English novelist. He was a book-seller & did not come to novel-writing until he was 50. There was new reading public composed chiefly of women, belonging to middle-classes. R. featured it. He was to be Homer of 18th century. We take into consideration his 3 novels: "Pamela", "Clarissa Harlow","Sir Charles Grandison".These 3 novels are written in the same manner,atmosphere&the method.They were told in letters&the letters were of such immense length that the writer had to scribble them day & night in order to produce them at all.The letters were never so long as in Richardson's stories. The stories themselves were thin&slight. One can't read R. for the story but for the sentiment,which is the key.He gave a record of characters,emotions & the way they were expressed & the circumstances under which they were experienced. At that time Richardson was the only one who could liberally share his emotions with the others. This explains R's manner of writing. You have to spend a week reading a day's experience of his character.The preparation for wedding could take a volume. Richardson put a human heart under the microscope. His sentiment was their sentiment.R. spent more time among women than among men. He wanted to give his audience what they wanted.His strength as a story-teller lies not in the plot but in the steady movement of his story. It captures you&you can't get rid of it.He was more popular in his time than any of his contemporary writers. But all of a sudden he lost his popularity.There were many reasons for that-R.demanded much leisure time.What he thought to be fine morality ran false with the readers. The main character of his 1st novel "Pamela" was a servant girl, who after the death of her mistress was seduced by her young master. But she showed such a strength of spirit&she was so clever that she was able to avoid the importunity of her master. She suffered a lot. Pamela used marry tricks to escape from him.She did it successfully & at last he married her.Analyzing her behavior we understand that she is not that innocent as she pretended to be. Richardson writes that Pamela was kind & tolerant."She is a broad, squat, pursy, fat thing, quite ugly if anything human can be so called: about 40 years old.""Clarissa Harlow" is even a more sentimental novel. She is a martyr,suffering from her relatives who're described as a cruel, rigid puritan family. She is seduced by Lovelace who cheated her & she can't live with it. Lovelace promises to marry her, but she  refuses coz she thinks it to be immoral. The intrigues against Clarissa are so pervasive that she can't escape like Pamela.She becomes a victim of Lovelace & finally she dies. The public was shocked by the novel and many people asked Richardson to save Clarissa's life but he refused, Lovelace is killed at a duel. The story itself is not very much convincing.























21. Henry Fielding Tom Jones, the Foundling-the first panorama of English life. (1707 1754)
The adventures of Joseph Andrews (1741)Tom Jones, a foundling (1749)Amelia (1751)History of the life of the late Mr. Jonathan Wild the GreatIt was Fielding who created a whole panorama of contemporary life. People belonging to different societies show how these societies come to operate. Tom Jones, a foundling .Tom & his beloved Sophia have many problems to overcome. Tom is an intelligent person&he wanted to marry Sophia & the fact that she is from upper classes does not trouble him.Fielding believes in personal qualities&that they are far more important than social standing. Tom is so much sincere that he keeps to his only love Sophia&tries hard to win her love. If youre influenced by passions they can cause collapse in a good person, and if you are sincere & honest you will achieve whatever is good & honest. Ton Jones is reared by Mr. Allworthy, a gentleman of high moral standards, who loves Tom & tries to support Tom in everything. A nephew of Mr. Allworthy is a hypocrite. He always tries to poison Mr. Allworthys heart against Tom. Finally he manages to do it&Tom is sent away.We find him traveling through the roads of England trying to search London. Sophia learns about it & sets along the road in order to catch up with Tom. Both Sophia & Tom are up against a lot of misfortunes but they are brave enough to overcome them. Finally they get married. It is not the plot that matters. Were given Fieldings attitude to life&the structure of the novel itself helps us to realize what F. really wanted to say. The first chapters illustrate Fs attitude to life.He was a master of composition&his book was perfectly planned. Tom Jones can be regarded as a picture of manners that characterizes people of all times. Features of Enlightenment in T J correspond to Fs view of the world, which is to a certain extent materialistic,but free. He admires common sense, but respects feelings as well. He believes that human nature is positive and each man has a right to be happy.
F was the 1st writer to introduce a theory of novel. It presupposes connection with life (in Ch I he states, that the object of his investigation is human nature); grotesques should be avoided (depiction should be natural); the aim of the novelist is to express the essence of the character; all significant moments of a characters life should be described (different emotions provide a novel with vitality);a novelist should take into consideration the reader and his reaction. TJ possesses all these features.Topics:  Fs basic concern is the nature of happiness and goodness (which turn out to be inseparable).He investigates such phenomena as tyranny, justice, charity, hypocrisy, ethics, sexual relationships (another feature of Enlightenment). Allworthy may serve as a kind of ideal (spokesman of ethical manners). TJ has no tendency to hypocrisy, wears no mask-his handsome face indicates handsome soul.All the other characters are hypocrites to some degree. The author doesnt idealize people, but believes in the prevalence of good nature, he is optimistic. He lets the good win a victory over the evil at the end of the book. TJ is the greatest novel of the 18th century&its a guide on how to be a gentleman. Neither Squire Allworthy nor Tom is without fault, but both have enough redeeming qualities to become Fs gentleman, and that is the lesson.  In Fs own words: it is much easier to make good men wise, than to make bad men good. 


















         22.The peculiarities of the romantic movement in E. William Blake genius, rebel, visionary. Analyses of poem Tiger.Gradually the term romanticism was applied to designate the birth of literature depending on instinct & emotion. The romantic literature came to oppose the rational literature of the 18th century.In all European countries it was characterized by features that werent represented in other countries,even in borders of one country the manifestation of romanticism is not the same. In England romanticism had no rigid program.Usually romantic writers are divided into 3 groups.This subdivision depended upon the vision of this or that writer. Some of them connected their hopes & desires with the future development of humanity. Some relied upon the past & the heroes of the past served the subject matter for their writing. Others relied upon the human instincts of the human being & disregarded the outer world as being unworthy & corrupted. The Romanist is a person who is not satisfied with reality.They all were against this dull reality. They relied upon the imagination as the only release of spirit.A rational writer is a member of an organized society-a romanticist is a rebellion against this society, because they have regulations & this can be regarded by the romanticist as limitations.Romanticists give types, not characters; their works are full of symbolism; there are lots of overtones; dreary associations prevail. Romanticist tries to get away from the world, relies more upon his own associations than on logic; polysemy of words & structures. William Blake(1757-1827)one of the major romantic poets, whose works became a part of romanticism movement.WB was an artist, an engraver& a poet. He was one of the most prominent writers in English culture. His writing combines a variety of style. Hes an artist,a lyric poet,a mystic,a visionary & his works had an inspiration on many poets of&bewildered readers.Blake could be difficult at times. His vision is very much different from the vision of an ordinary person. His works are multilevel. His desire was to create a philosophical system. His works range from simple& lyrical style of Songs of innocence&Songs of experience to the most sophisticated in The Marriage of Heaven & Hell & The Book of Urizen.Tiger describes the terror & beauty of one of Gods creations. Who can create such a fearful creation? Who possesses fierce strength? The gentleness of the lamb&the fierceness of the tiger are reconciled by God. The illustration of the biblical fact that the lamb& the lion will live peacefully.The tiger symbolizes the qualities of the human being. The author contrasts gentleness & aggressiveness of our spirit.Its the idea of being vulnerable & at the same time unbending (ability to forgive & forget). We associate tiger & lamb with our potential feelings & attitudes that are stimulated by the language of the poem. The poem though seems simple on the surface but becomes more complex when viewed on different levels. It would be bad mistake to ignore.Blakes short poems are much better than his long books. His poems rely upon the readers response, their bitter communication. They rely upon the human experience & for the most part its the inner experience of the human being. Blake is wrestling with the moral & psychological problems of people. They are regarded as symbols. The main problem Blake tries to solve is the problem of tyranny.The poem is comprised of 6 quatrains in rhymed couplets. Its hammering beat suggestive of the smithy () that is the poem's central image.The simplicity and neat proportions of the poems form perfectly suit its regular structure. As the poem progresses, the tiger takes on a symbolic character, and comes to embody the spiritual and moral problem the poem explores: perfectly beautiful and yet perfectly destructive, Blake's tiger becomes the symbolic center for an investigation into the presence of evil in the world. The poem's series of questions shows - only a very strong and powerful being could be capable of such a creation. The "forging" () of the tiger suggests a very deliberate kind of making; it prevents the idea that such a creation could have been in any way accidentally produced. The imagery of fire=creation and destruction. The poem addresses not only the question of who could make such a creature as the tiger, but who would perform this act. This is a question of creative responsibility and of will. The reference to the lamb in the last but one stanza reminds the reader that a tiger and a lamb have been created by the same God, and raises questions about the implications of this.

24. Lord G.G. Byron(1788-1824) and the romantic character of his Childe Harold(cantos 1-2)and his other early poems.Hours of idleness (1807), Child Harolds pilgrimage (Cantos 1-2, 3-4) (1812)Don Juan (1823), Heaven & Earth (1821).At the beginning of his career Byron was a romantic poet, in the end-realistic poet. Byrons life was very much influenced by several things.The poet was disappointed with the results of the French Revolution, but remained true to the ideas of liberty and equality. He hated wars and the rising power of capital. He sympathized with the oppressed people and seemed to understand their role in the future battles for freedom.Moreover, his childhood was very unhappy. His father married not for love, but for money. He died when Byron was only 3 years old. His mother was left a widow with an income a little more than 100 ponds per year. She was passionately fond of her son but capricious & violent in temper. Byron loved her but could not respect. He was handsome in features but clubfoot. He was painfully sensitive of this defect. None of his first poems are of great merit, but they may be regarded as a promise of future excellence. Immediately after the publication he went on a two-year-long voyage to Europe and Asia and many of his adventures and experiences provided material for his poetry(2 cantos of Child Harolds pilgrimage).This book was entirely different from his publications. It showed a poet of great talent&poetic imagination. The first two cantos gave birth to a new type of character Byrons character.These two cantos describe a man who was dissatisfied with the world & the society, bored by the life of aristocracy, who sank in misanthropy. The book was written in a Spenserian stanza (consisting of 9 lines,5-foot iambic lines, followed by the iambic line of 6 feet, the rhyming scheme is abab bcbcc). The splendid descriptions contained in Child Harold opposed the identity between the hero & the poet. Byron invented a new type of character a very cynical, proud man, with misery in his heart, despising his fellow-creatures,implacable of revenge, yet capable of strong & deep affection in love. Child Harold of the first two cantos & Byrons character are transpositions of one & the same character. He is unable to carry the burden of existence he cant give love. He wants to be good, but at the same time he is misanthropic, he is dissatisfied with himself, falls into pessimism. The character suffers a lot because of his insufficiency & extreme individualism. At the same time the poems are so beautiful, that you cant refrain from reading them though sometimes you disagree with Byrons attitude to humanity. After an unfortunate marriage Byron decided to leave England. This was his reaction to the attitude of the society that could not tame the poet&that turned against him & did everything to discredit him. In Geneva B wrote the 3rd canto of CH that reflects the bitterness of his heart.It is not a story about CH at all, but rather a poetic chronicle of travels and thoughts.The Corsair is fragmentary and the reader has to use his imagination to combine them. The protagonist is a typical romantic character of Byron, ready to revolt, but the aim of his protest is vague. His character is very passionate, its like a protest against the hateful, everyday life. The romanticists saw great value in men whose souls were ruled by strong passion, even a wicked one.






25 Don Juan by J.G.Byron
Don Juan is the last great work of Byron (1818). The poem was begun when he left Italy for Greece.The poem records 6 major adventures of his hero. It opens with the description of his childhood & his early love affair with Donna Juliaa married friend of his mother.The love affair was discovered&this discovery led to Don Juans being sent away from the country. The first half of canto describes the shipwreck & Don Juans sufferings in an open boat. Byron shows that he became the realistic writer&its proved by the fact that we know a lot about the characters background.We know nothing about the past of Byrons romantic characters.With Don Juan things become different-we know much about his childhood, were given much information about his parents&the society he grew up in. From the first 2 cantos we can see that Byron pays much attention to the realistic details.The third adventure involves Haidee-the daughter of a Greek pirate Lambro. Haidee finds Don Juan unconscious on the shore-she becomes his lover-her fathers unexpected return-Don Juan is seized&sent into slavery. In Constantinople Don Juan has courage to resist the advances of the sultans favorite wife. Byron describes his solitude from the 4th canto till the end of the 6th canto. In the last part of the poem Juan, accompanied by a group of guests, visits the country of a Lord Amundeville&takes part in foxhunt. Juan has success with the ladies. Here the narrative breaks off.17th Canto of Don Juan remained unfinished. However in the letters Byron spoke about the end of the poem. He wanted his hero to take part in the French Revolution and die fighting for freedom. Juan is bought in a slave market by the Turkish sultan. He is sent to the harem in the guise of a woman. He goes through many adventures there. At last he escapes fromTurkey and gets to the Russian camp near Ismail where Byron gives realistic pictures of the storming of Ismail under the command of the great Suvorov.On Ismails surrender Juan is sent to St Petersburg with the news of the victory and is received at court of Empress Catherine.In Don Juan Byron reveals many topics: love, fame, politics etc. he shows his ironic but finally compassionate sense of human comedy. The intention of the novel is to represent the human comedy,that changes with the time but in reality remains the same. In this respect Byron employs traveling&adventure to give us a model of different situations & these different parts are united by the main character, who serves like a pivot around which the whole world evolves. But Don Juan is a special type of character he is the center of the plot,but we are interested in the people he meets & the settings in which he meets them. In this we come realize that Byron gives us an opportunity to attach importance even to secondary characters.Byrons tone differs sharply when he deals with different characters, tries to represent their speech. This quality makes the novel sound dramatic. We have a lot of conversation. In some parts of the novel Byron himself comes to the process&addresses to the public. But even in the time when his characters speak he tries to realize his dramatic method, he brings himself in. He is alw.present,he doesnt pretend to remove himself from the stage. As a commentator he is rather witty. In Don Juan he sentimentalizes occasionally.Normally his fundamental comparison shows itself through high-spirited mockery which is typical of him. He may use some literary digressions, but soon returns to his habitual tone irony & mockery which becomes keen when in the last 6 cantos he is admitted to British polite society. Don Juan was never completed. Within a year poets life was ended. Byron was an arrogant lover of liberty, fought in the revolutionary Italy. As many great poets Byron predicted his fate & death.














26. Realism as a trend in literature. Charles Dickens' "The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club".Realism was a manifestation of the faith in science and liberalism that grew constantly in England during the 19th c.The lit-re of R concerned itself with the affairs of middle & depressed classes, economic & social matters. In fact, realism was always a characteristic feature of English literature.Realistic writers were interested in character's formation & treated human being as an adult of free will.    Eng R. was influenced by such French writers as Stendhal, Balzac, Gustave Flaubert. Later it was infl. by Norwegian dramatist Ibsen,& great Rus.Dostoyevsky,Tolstoy,Turgenev.In Eng we can see it in works of Defoe, Fielding, Richardson, but begins with Dickens, he created a panorama of early 19th cent Britain.CD(1812-1870). "The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick club"(1837), "Oliver Twist","Christmas Carol"(1844),"David Copperfield"(1849),"Bleak House".His father was a simple clerk.When Charles was 2 years old,they moved   to London.When he was 9 the year D's father couldn't pay debts&was sent to prison. The boy was taken out of school&was sent to work.When his father was released&became newspaper reporter,Ch again began attending school.At 15 he started working as an attorney's clerk&later he became a reporter. D's childhood produced a terrible impact upon his imagination. Since that time one of his topics was terrible childhood of many Eng children. He was so much hurt that he couldn't forget it at all.In his works many char-ters come from his childhood.D created people that are never down to earth, they are concrete & individual at the same time being types, generalizations.Pickwick Club was first designed as series of cartoons. It's a novel that gives a panoramic vision of England from the view p.of Mr Pickwick, a naive person. It gave D an opportunity to portray most prominent features of Victorian England.In 1837 began the reign of Queen Victoria-transition from England decay to England as a great empire. D was very sensitive to this transition period. Though he was in many ways as naive as Mr Pickwick, he could always find the causes of people's sufferings, injustice, grief & despair. He was not a social reformer, he never wrote for social reform.D works may seem boring coz theyre slow&plots are not very interesting.Some readers find lots of faults with D: 1)novels are full of melodrama,2)char-ters do not seem real,3)D never touched upon such issues as love, religion - people are interested in is humanity,4) D's works can't be said true to life, they are true to experience, 5)His char-ters may seem caricatures.His char-ters are either black or white-good or bad.He chooses the position of a child,knows who is good & who is bad. The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club is a sequence of loosely-related adventures.The novel's main char-r,Mr Samuel Pickwick,wealthy old gentleman,the founder&president of the PC.To extend his researches into the interesting&curious phenomena of life,he suggests that he and three other"Pickwickians"(Mr Nathaniel Winkle,Mr Augustus Snodgrass, and Mr Tracy Tupman) should make journeys to remote places from London and report on their findings to the members of the club. Their travels throughout the English countryside provide the chief theme of the novel.Its main literary value and appeal is formed by its numerous memorable characters.Each character is comical,often with exaggerated personalities. Alfred Jingle,a strolling actor&a charlatan is central figure of comic meanness. His misadventures cause trouble to the Pickwickians.Other notable adventures include Mr Pickwick's legal case against his landlady, Mrs Bardell,who is suing him for the  promise to marry her.Another is Mr Pickwick's imprisonment for his stubborn refusal to pay the compensation to her; the unscrupulous Dodson and Fogg's law firm prosecuted poor Pickwick.















28. W. Thackerays Vanity Fair as a panorama of E. life
The most important feature of human comedy:relations between the characters are treated as a blend of tragedy and comedy.VF gives us a mixture of the pathetic and the humorous, which is latent  in the true humour.Thackerays (1811-1863) his first major novel, Vanity Fair. The novel takes place during the Napoleonic Wars and concerns the lives of two extremelly contrasted girls: Becky Sharp,orphan&poor but resourceful,driven by social ambition;and Amelia Sedley,sheltered daughter of a rich City merchant driven by her delicate heart. These two meet at Miss Pinkertons Academy for young ladies. Sharps adventures begin with an attempt to marry Joe Sedley,Amelias brother, who is rich but dim(). She soon finds her way to the Crawley household as a governess and marries Rawdon, the second son of Sir Pitt Crawley,although the father himself had proposed to her. Rawdon is, typically for the novel, an ignorant and self-indulgent man. However, Becky moves on further to become the mistress of Lord Steyne and finds her place in society almost accidentally in the end. Miss Sedleys story is less intriguing, largely due to useless first husband Osborne and moral by uninteresting second love Dobbin. Thackerays portrait of the upper classes in the early nineteenth century is consistently humiliating and negative but is entertaining for its mean characters and hopeless, loveless relationships. Though Thackeray set his novel a generation earlier, he was really writing about his own society. Thackeray saw how capitalism and imperialism with their emphasis on wealth, and  material goods had corrupted society and how the inherited social order and institutions, including the aristocracy, the church, the military, and the foreign service, regarded only family, rank, power, and appearance. These values morally crippled and emotionally bankrupted every social class from servants through the middle classes to the aristocracy. High and low, individuals were selfish and incapable of loving.His object in writing the novel was to indicate that we are for the most part foolish and selfish people "desperately wicked" and all eager after vanities. So, Vanity Fair is a panoramic, satirical saga of corruption at all levels of English society.Thackeray's subtitle, "A Novel Without a Hero," implies, that not only the novel has no character, but heroism itself doesnt exist. The tone of novel ranges from humour to sarcasm. Thackeray isnt a thinker or philosopher, he is a man of quick observation and deep feeling. He portrayed the world of self interest, snobbery, vanity (a sin).He manipulates the characters, but doesnt participate in the action he is above. The action moves like a merry-go-round (the centre is Becky Sharp). V.F. is a panorama of social life.All the characters gravitate around Becky, gain vitality from her, they are actually parasites (esp. Amelia, though she has all the qualities of a good woman). Becky is attractive, she has nothing to lose, this gives her an advantage; she laughs at her miscalculation.She is incapable of love, loyalty, but Thackeray doesnt make her suffer deeply (perhaps, because she is natural, energetic, full of life). Becky cant suffer, because she is convinced that if you are defeated then there is always some possibility to get your own back. NO writer was better gifted than Thackeray for the kind of satire based on reflection of the reality (though exaggerated).Of all satirists,Thackeray,after Swift,is the most gloomy.Even his countrymen have reproached him with depicting the world uglier than it is. Indignation, grief, disgust are his ordinary sentiments.He is sure of his judgment.


















29.O. Wilde and his theory of art for arts sake. Analyses of The picture of D.G.
O. Wilde was born in Ireland, in Dublin. He received a very good education at Trinity College in Dublin and at Oxford Uni-ty. W visited America where he lectured on art. His 1st published work was the book of childrens stories, The Happy Prince, then his only novel The picture of Dorian Gray, several essays in criticism. W won his fame as a dramatist: A Woman of no Importance, The Importance of Being Earnest,The Ideal Husband. He had to earn money by journalism. But he disliked this sort of activity and he never signed his articles. He had to leave Britain for France, where he lived in poverty until his death. W was considered to be the leader of aestheticism a new trend in lit-re, the adherents of which believed, that it was impossible to better the world, and influenced by hedonism, conveyed the idea that everyone must strive for his own private happiness, avoid suffering and enjoy life at all costs. These writers created their own cult of beauty and proclaimed the theory of pure art, their motto was art for arts sake (= art was isolated from life, it was the only thing that really existed and was worth living for, life only mirrored art). It was originally a protest against bourgeois bigotry [`big@tri] (, ), hypocrisy and narrowness as hindering the development of human personality. Aestheticism of W was at the same time his world outlook and the basic principle of theory of art.   
The picture of Dorian Gray (a novel) was originally meant to illustrate the theory of art for arts sake and hedonism. But in reality being a work of art it begins to live its own life and disproves the whole theory. Its a story of a young handsome man, a sitter for Basil Hallward, whose personality gets under the influence of Lord Henry and becomes gradually corrupt by his theories of life for the sake of enjoyment. The author traces all changes occurring inside of the soul of the protagonist, ending in absolute moral degradation (the murder of Basil). Dorian is influenced by two men with sharply contrasting characters: their attitude towards the young man shows their diff. approach to life, art and beauty. Basil is an artist to the core. He doesnt have such a brilliant wit as Lord Henry, but he is kind, generous, honest and humane. To his mind art without beauty is shallow. The young mans appearance is a kind of inspiration to the artist, an embodiment of beauty which is in full harmony with the inner world of the youth. He tries to appeal to DGs conscience. Lord Henry is a clever cynic who is eager to exercise his influence over a soul. He is handsome, pleasant to listen to, his speech as eloquent and witty, full of paradoxes. But at the same time he is heartless, cynical and immoral. He believes neither in relationship nor in love. He knows that he has ruined DGs life, but he doesnt care. The fact that DG is fascinated by his personality gives him pleasure and that is the only thing his selfish nature wants. The end of the book is a contradiction to Ws theory. The fact that the portrait acquired its former beauty and DG withered, wrinkled lay on the floor with a knife in his heart, shows the triumph of real beauty a piece of art created by an artist, a unity of beautiful form and content. DGs portrait is symbolic. It shows not only a handsome young man, but also the inner world of the artist who created it and the spiritual life of the sitter. The novel is written in the impressionistic style (details are refined; the lang-ge is elaborated). The Purpose of Art When DG was first published it was decried as immoral. In revising the text the following year, Wilde included a preface, which serves as a useful explanation of his philosophy of art. The purpose of art is to have no purpose. Art need not possess any other purpose than being beautiful. The Supremacy of youth and beauty is traced throughout the novel (the picture itself, Dorian, Basils works, Dorians house with beautiful things and Basils garden, Sybil Vane). But at the same time the novel is full of paradoxes: W glorifies beauty but deprives it of moral principles (Dorian Gray and his deeds).











30.Oscar Wilde as a poet of erring humanity. Analyses of The Ballad of Reading Gaol 
It wasnt meant to tell the story only as many ballads do. Ballads tell a story sometimes at great length. The genre of a ballad became very popular since ancient times. The fact that Wilde wrote a ballad makes us believe that at last he compelled the work to be enjoyed & understood by all classes of people. His ballad was not meant to be enjoyed only. It was meant to perplex, to disturb. Its addressed to human kind at large. Its not about a particular case or religion, though Christianity is the main background for it. Its about abstract things & notions justice & brotherhood, real love & compassion. Sometimes its considered to be a cry in wilderness, because not so many people are sensitive to the grief of others. Not so many people know & want to know for whom the bell tolls. Its a tragedy not of a character only, but of certain notions by which the people live. Its a story of death & disaster. Its told with great economy. Here Wilde is clever enough to avoid terrible descriptions, unpleasant scenes. Its different from other ballads, because the emphasis is not on the action; its on the attitude. It begins with the introduction that presupposes the appearance of several melodies that are simultaneous according to the medieval theory of the counterpoint. All people commit crimes every day. Here is the melody of penitentiary institution. Every episode shows that the period before the execution is much worse than execution itself. The execution is wrong both morally & physically. This is a very strange & terrible stanza. Christ was kinder than the men.Wilde speaks to a bush that grew there. Its practically the end of the ballad & Wildes life of his doctrines.As in every ballad some parts are repeated being slightly transformed. To make it sound like a tragedy Wilde expanded some stanzas (form 4 to 6 lines) & it had a different rhyming system, which is more effective. There is a final conclusion, but this conclusion presupposes reaction of the reader or listener, which is really predetermined. Wilde is clever enough not to represent himself as an ordinary convict. In fact he does not give us any slang or dialect that will show us the status of the prisoners. They are all ennobled by the recognition of their common & individual guilt. Its a ballad of feeling of a two-year torment, which broke the spirit of Wilde & his health. It has also broken his protective shell. And still in the repetitions that every ballad abandons we see the poignant attitude of an author who managed to comprise the feelings of humanity.














31.Rudyard Kipling on man and his duty, neo-romanticism. (1865 1936)
Romanticism as such finds its ways in the minds of people & in the trends that somehow come into being in literature.We can speak here of periodic reoccurrences in literary history. Reoccurrences of Romanticism belongs to Blake, Burns, Byron etc. A revival of this movement began at the turn of the 20th century. It formed a part of a literary reaction against realism & naturalism in particular. The authors that participated in this movement shared an interest in the exotic & unusual as opposed to prosaic & ordinary (J. Galsworthy, S. Maugham vs.R. Kipling). Kipling was attracted by the unusual & exotic, heroic & superhuman. At the same time he was down to earth. He was an advocate of an ordinary soldier. He was considered an English nationalist and at the same time he wrote about England as being petty&even lamentable. He expressed rather prominent dislike for non-white people & at the same time he wrote that they are more honest.He showed his respect for the working class&was all against the labor movement.He wrote about the Empire with great exaltation&showed that the works of the Empire were vain (vague).Kipling was a poet, a writer of fiction,a journalist. At the same time he was a literary critic; he was a social writer who was very much concerned with current events & at the same time he wrote about the eternal. Kipling is an author of many facets: folklorist, dialect poet, adventure novelist, champion of nationalism & at the same time one of the most humanistic writers.It appears that Kiplings stories for children starts are the best in the genre, than most of his adult prose. This is a good sample to prove that Kipling is sincere.Junglebooks They show Mawgley and his animal associates. Its about law of the jungle mostly just law, because it depends not only upon our national considerations, but upon the instinct. If animal is dangerous (like a Tiger), it is despised by the whole animal community. Kipling tried to catch a didactic idea of the book, but its not one of these ideas children come to like about Junglebook. Its a book about friendship, about genuine leadership. In many ways its an idealistic book, which proves that human society & the set of values of human beings are not a pattern to be imitated.

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32. Naturalism as a trend in lt-re. J.Galsworthy as a naturalist ant realist. The Forsyte Saga.The middle of the 19th century&the 20th century were characterized by realistic movement although some novelists have turned to naturalism.Naturalism&realism can be viewed from different perspectives. Naturalism is different from realism in social aspects. If realistic writers were interested in characters formation, naturalism is more interested in social forces. Its concerned for the most part the sordid, the shocking & the depressing sides of existence. Naturalism is pseudo-scientific in its approach. Writers tend to treat human being as a biological pawn. Realists treat human being as an adult of free will. Naturalist authors do not tend to judge characters or to comment upon their actions. They insert people into critical situations & then pretend to stand back&to watch them. They write novels to cover every sheet of their life. They write characters that are not characters,but personifications of a certain class.John Galsworthy(1867-1933)in London. He could become a lawyer but preferred literature. His cherished desire was to expose all the evils of society and to reveal the truth of life, and he hoped that the profession of a writer would help him to realize his lifelong dream. G received the Nobel Prize for Literature for "his distinguished art of narration, which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga."This book illustrates the decline of a bourgeois family (3 generations) at the end of 19th century up to the 20-s of the 20th century. Extreme individualism, egoism, a strong sense of property and money worship-these are the most characteristic features of the Forsyte clan.What is particularly well expressed in the relations of the Forsytes within the family is the striking contradiction between their dislike and suspicion of each other on the one hand, and their colossal sense of solidarity before any outside threat&when they came in touch with a person who was not of their world,they were ready to fight that stranger (ex. the engagement of June to Philip Bosinney).The Forsytes estimate people in the same way as they estimate things. A man who can make a great deal of money is a person of importance, deeply respected by the Forsytes; one who cannot, is despised by them.Sense of property is the most characteristic feature of the family. Soames Forsyte, the main character of the novel, is an embodiment of the spirit of society where the cult of property rules the world. He is sure that everything can be bought for money. He regards not only his pictures, houses and investments as his property but even his wife. Soames is unable to comprehend that all his property cannot make Irene love him. The other members of the family are unable to understand it either. In their opinion the very fact that Irene has no fortune of her own is enough to make it her duty to love and obey her rich husband. That was the Forsytes' conception of love and marriage.The characters of Irene and Bosinney  were created as a contrast to the Forsyte clan with all their prejudices and negative features. The author describes Irene's appearance, but never tells us directly about her thoughts and feelings.She is presented through the eyes of other characters. Even her romance with Bosinney, beautiful as it is, is shown through the impressions of other characters.Old Jolyon is one of the most attractive personages of the novel. His character is shown in development. At the beginning of the book he is a typical Forsyte. When his son married to a governess the father did not want to see him. Later he was sorry and did everything to help his son's second family.At the close of his life old Jolyon came to realize that there was something more precious in life than property.The author uses satire against Forsyte's prejudices and snobbery.His weapon is irony. Galsworthy shows the decay of the bourgeois society as a whole.



33. Shaw and his drama of intellectual conflict. Bernard Shaw - one of the greatest realistic writers in world lit-re. His life as a writer began in the 80s of the 19th c. and lasted till the middle of the 20th c. A great publicist and dramatist,he was always in the centre of political life in Britain. He took an active part in solving human problems and was deeply interested in questions of war and peace. He was born in Dublin, moved to London, where decided to try his hand at writing: for him the aim of lit-re was to form peoples minds, to solve human problems and to lead people in social struggles.Sh introduced discussion into his plays. For Sh drama was a conflict of ideas, for him mental action took the place of emotions, he brought moral passion to the stage to break the long monopoly of physical and sensual passion. His was the drama of a thinking man. He tried to make his art truthful even if it caused discomfort to certain people. He was courageous in treating new social themes and was free of standard theatrical traditions. Sh believed, that theatre should direct people in life = was interested in broadening the boundaries of the theatre and attracting more people = a play should be not only playable but readable. Sh introduced a new form of drama the publicist drama. He expressed his ideas not only through the individual characters but through the settings of the play. Shaw's manner of expression is based on real facts and ridicule. He exposes truth through satire and sarcasm, enjoys making fun of the British system of government. His style of writing is always optimistic. Shs language is very effective: his ideas are expressed in short wise, witty sayings (aphorisms). Shaws humour always tends towards farce as he doesnt combine making fun of people with moral disapproval. One of his best comedies is Pygmalion (P). The title of the play comes from a Greek myth. P, a sculptor, carved a statue out of ivory. It was the statue of a beautiful young girl called Galatea, P fell in love with Galatea, so the goddess Aphrodite breathed life into the statue, and Galatea became a beautiful young creature. In Sh's story the professor of phonetics, Henry Higgins, takes a flower-seller from the London streets and turns her into a grand lady. Eliza Doolittle, a girl of 18, comes from the lowest social level and speaks with a strong Cockney accent, the most illiterate English, which was like a stamp on a person's reputation. The play shows how Eliza struggles to rise to a higher cultural level. Sh knew the common fate of those who were born in poverty. People with the Cockney E would not be taken on to work at a respectable place. Having heard the conversation between Higgins and Pickering (a phonetician studying Indian dialects) about herself, she sees a chance of being pulled out of the gutter. She comes to H's house and stays there to be taught. H, in his turn, bets Pickering that he will pass Eliza off as a duchess at an ambassador's garden party in 6 months. H is convinced that it is only a manner of speaking which can distinguish a common flower-girl from a duchess. At last Eliza passes as a princess at an Embassy, thus, winning the professor's bet for him. The chara-r of Eliza shows how much force and talent lies undeveloped in common people. The experiment completed, H loses his interest in the matter, entirely forgetting that he has been dealing with a human being. Eliza's feelings are wounded. She cant go back to selling flowers in the street. She has acquired some cul-re and wants to do useful work. She wants independence and her share of human kindness. For Eliza, the flower-seller, the most important thing in human relationships is that people care about each other; for professor Higgins, the most important thing is that they help each other to improve themselves. H understands the way she feels, he even feels guilty about the work he has done and says that the girl is like a millstone on his neck. But at the same time he doesnt want to part her.

34.Joyce as a naturalist and realist. Dubliners The dead
James Joyce (1882-1941) is among the most widely read modem writers. Joyce was born in Dublin. His family background was shabby-genteel and catholic. Joyce was supposed to become a priest but after a religious crisis he left Ireland in 1904 as an atheist. For the rest of his life he was to be a citizen of the world. He studied medicine and then singing in Paris,then taught languages in Italy and Switzerland. The first period of Joyce's life as a writer was the period of Dubliners where he gives us sketches of the characteristic situations of the life of which he is still a part. The stories have much in common: realistic, neutral style, no sign of emotion or excitement. The dead stands apart. He presented a story in a way that implies comment. Death is in many stories: The Sisters-Father Flynn (priest unhappy, understanding the distorted values and corruption of church, he is unable to say it to people. The only listener is boy.) Eveline-dead mother (time is slowed down by her speculation, if she was going to leave, she would do it without hesitations, but she tries to find as many positive features of her life as possible).The early volume of short stories, Dubliners, is a penetrating analysis of the stagnation and paralysis of Dublin society. The stories incorporate epiphanies-a sudden spiritual manifestation, moments of insight and understanding, moments, in which soul is born. Epiphany is an effective means to stress the turning point of the story that changes the characters and the readers understanding of life, make them reevaluate their experience and come to the conclusions that life has been wasted that one is unable to start anew. Dubliners is not a mere collection, but a fragmentary novel. United by Dublin, it is a pivot.The main theme-the paralysis of a modern city that leads to frustration. It is imposed upon the inhabitants.The Dead- a long story, an outlet. The final epiphany. This short story gives voice to the emotions of a husband whose wife's romantic tie to a man who died years ago forces him to realize that there is a chapter of his wife's life of which he has no part. Gabriel Conroy and his wife, Gretta, attend the "Misses Morkan's Annual Dance," held by his two aunts, Kate and Julian Morkan. At the dance, Gretta is twice reminded of her past love, Michael Furey. First, a friend invites Gretta and Gabriel to Galway, the place where she had had her relationship with Michael. Secondly, she is reminded by a song sung by Mr. D'Arcy, "The Lass of Aughrim," the song Michael had sung to her on their long walks through the country. Gabriel, oblivious to her affections and anticipating a romantic evening, brings her to a hotel perceiving that "they had escaped from their lives and duties." When he questions Gretta's apathetic mood, she tells him the tragic story of Michael 's illness and how he had revealed to her he no longer wanted to love after heard she must leave. Gabriel is tormented by the dull, pathetic existence he has to offer his wife when another has devoted such deep-felt passion to her even in death.Gabriel is sick&tired of politics and nationalism and devotion to catholic faith. He refuses to participate in any ventures. All of a sudden there is a conflict between a protagonist attitude to life and people and lust. But the romantic movement of his life changes. Human existence is a very complex phenomenon, life is not simple. The snow covering the living and the dead is a kind of compromise between a pragmatic attitude and a romantic one.The world Joyce reveals is neither beautiful nor exalting; in Dubliners it is weak and invalid, stricken by aphasia. Joyce's epiphany, even though it retains the quality of a spiritual revelation. Joyce, who would later be acknowledged as the pioneer of stream of consciousness writing, here uses a more realist style. The stories were written at the time when Irish nationalism was at its peak, and a search for a national identity and purpose was raging; at a crossroads of history and culture. Many of the characters in Dubliners later appear in minor roles in Joyce's novel Ulysses.  According to Joyce a human-being undergoes several changes in the development of his character. Each of the stages manifests a new kind of revelation. This means that a human being is confronted by an experience which may be regarded as a kind of shock. This shock serves as a starting point of each new stage, which make a human being wiser, and imposes a new kind or self-revelation. 











































35. The stream of consciousness as a reaction to realism& naturalism. James Joyces Ulysessas a study of consciousness. (1882 1941).The novel describes practically 24 hours in the characters life & the construction of the novel is superficially to that of Homers Iliad. The chief characters are Leopold Bloom (a middle-aged advertising salesman), his half-Spanish wife Molly, their daughter Milly, Mr. Boilan (Mollys lover), & Stephen Dedalus (a young intellectual, just returns from Paris, now teaching in a small private school). Joyce is very much naturalistic showing us social details, feelings that are not shared. Joyce was almost blind & this accounts for his method. He relied upon his ear more than upon his eye. He was a refugee. He could not stomach the limitations Ireland imposed on him. He wrote about Dublin in his Dubliners. Its Dublin that unites all stories in the collection. The importance of Joyce is in many respects dependant on the language he uses & on the way how he deals with the language. For many years Joyce was a professional language teacher. Language occupies a dominant place in his technique. Almost blind he was sensitive to the sound of words, touch, and smell. He tries to portray & verbalize these senses in language. Joyce is a master of reproducing the speech. He has captured the spirit of everyday conversation.There are terms that describe his method interior monologue, impressionist description, the stream of consciousness technique. These techniques develop but each of them produces a separate unique effect. Some people say that the term monologue describes Joyces method better than stream of consciousness. His characters mostly talk to themselves. Its the how they are doing it & in this respect they do not even try to establish some logical scheme & order. Joyce tries to reproduce the workings of the mind & the associations which are characteristic of the workings of the mind. With Joyce everything seems to be verbalized but in fact much is implied. He doesnt make pauses. He changes the speaker and doesnt give us any warning. On the one hand even ticking of the clock & the speech of waves is verbalized. On the other hand reader should imagine the actions & intentions of the character. Characters that boast of having no particular education speak in the accents of Dante & Shakespeare using the same philosophical notions. They form images worthy of poets. Its so because Joyce never tried to curve his own want of interaction. He endowed his characters with his own mind & vocabulary. His craftsmanship makes these words sound natural in the lips of any character that is chosen to be the speaker.The reader of Ulysses is emerged into the stream of consciousness, which is represented by allusive & highly packed language. One has to consult dictionaries & encyclopedia to find the meanings of every allusion. In Ulysses the effect of simultaneity is achieved by switching rapidly from one character to another. Joyce had a host of imitators but no one proved to be successful. Still Joyces chief stylistic device is stream of consciousness represented as interior monologue, inner thoughts combined with stimuli of the external world & the mental processes portrayed in disconnected sentences. Interior monologue is a succession of disconnected (at first sight) characters.





36. Lit-re of psychology and analyses. D.H. Lawrence and his theory of the human ego (1885 1930) Sons and lovers& Prussian officer The term psychological lit-re presupposes an analysis of the characters inner conflicts and motivations which are examined by the writer and are presented for the reader to digest. This term can be applied to the works of Lawrence (L), but in reference to L it means mainly descriptions of sexual and neurotic complexes,popularized. Ls purpose was to present human motivation, to bring the subject of social relations in the open. L regarded sexuality as a way to freedom, a way to put an end to limitations, a kind of reaction against puritan cul-re. He considered that it was sexual energy that society sought to control. 3 group of char-s as to their attitude towards intimate life: people (puritans and bourgeois), who intellectualized love and marriage; those who reject the morals of the first and are capable of artificial love; those who are capable of real tenderness, who follow their natural inclination and consider love as the satisfaction of any other natural drive. As a novelist L was little interested in innovations, he followed conventional principles, was rather conservative. His ability to use word-painting to stimulate the emotions of the reader, his ability to treat nature as a background against which human feelings spring up to light, his ability to show nature as a partner of a human being make him an exceptional, great writer. Lawrence doesnt believe in stability of the human being, in the consistency of the character. He shows human nature acting in a self-contradictory manner as in Sons and Lovers (S&L).  S&L  (1913) is largely autobiographical. The novel was sparked () by the death of L's mother. L reexamined his childhood, his relationship with his mother, and her psychological effect on his sexuality.Mrs. Morel has unhappy marriage with a drunkard.  The couple is constantly quarreling.Gradually,Mrs.Morel's affections shift to her sons beginning with the oldest, William.As a boy,William is very attached to his mother.As he grows older, he defends her against his father's violence.Eventually, he leaves home for a job in London, where he is engaged, but detests the girl's superficiality. He dies and Mrs. Morel is deep in grief, but when Paul,second son,catches pneumonia she rediscovers her love for him.Paul is afraid to leave her but wants to go out on his own, and needs to experience love.Gradually,he falls into a relationship with Miriam,a farm girl who attends his church.The two take long walks and have intellectual conversations about books but Paul resists,because his mother doesnt like her. At work, Paul meets Clara Dawes who has separated from her husband, Baxter.Having lost interest to M.after having sex with her,Paul leaves her.He grows more intimate with Clara,but even she cannot hold him and he returns to his mother.When his mother dies soon after,he is alone.L discusses bondage (, ) in 2 major ways: social and romantic. Socially, Mrs. Morel feels bound by her status as a woman and by industrialism. She complains of feeling "'buried alive,'" a logical complaint for someone married to a miner.  Romantic bondage is given more emphasis in the novel. Paul feels bound to his mother, and cannot imagine ever abandoning her or even marrying anyone else. He is preoccupied with the notion of lovers "belonging" to each other, and his true desire, revealed at the end, is for a woman to claim him forcefully as her own. He feels that Miriam fails in this regard and that Clara always belonged to her husband. no woman could ever match the intensity and firmness of his mother's claim. The theme of jealousy complements the theme of bondage. Mrs. Morel is constantly jealous of her sons' lovers, and she masks this jealousy very thinly. Morel, too, is jealous over his wife's closer relationships with his sons and over their successes. L also uses the opposition of the body and mind to expose the contradictory nature of desire: Paul's attraction to Miriam, his spiritual soul mate, is less intense than his desire for the sensual, physical Clara.



42. Twains The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn as a book for adults.
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Life on the Mississippi and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn are parts of one masterwork. But if to consider them separately theyre quite diff.The 1st is a story written for boys. The 2nd is a collection of sketches and impressions of the great river; the 3rd is a story of a boy, but no longer is a story only for boys. Its a book for the discerning () adult. Underneath the golden dream of boyhood lies the sense of evil and disaster. InHuck Finn Twain focuses on the institution of slavery and the South. We do not look at Huck - we see the world through his eyes. Huck has no imagination in the sense of which Tom has it: he has, instead, vision. He sees the real world; and he does not judge it - he allows us to judge it. Huck Finn is alone.The fact that he has a father only emphasizes his loneliness.The only friend he has&without Jim he would be incomplete.Huck is the passive observer of men and events. Jim on the contrary is the submissive () sufferer from life; and both are equal in dignity.And when they become separated in the fog,Huck understands that he must bear the responsibility of a man. Huck is a boy who comes from the low classes of white society. His father is a drunkard who disappears for months. Huck himself is dirty and frequently homeless. Although the Widow Douglas tries to take care of Huck, he resists her attempts and leads his independent way of life.Ex.Yet Huck is not some kind of independent moral genius. He must still struggle with some of the prejudices about blacks that society has imposed on him.Jim is like father for Huck&takes care of him,though Huck is free from society's rules,able to make his own decisions without restriction.Through deep introspection,he comes to his own conclusions. By the novel's end, Huck has learned to "read" the world around him, to distinguish good, bad, right, wrong. Childhood only a child is open-minded enough to undergo the kind of development that Huck does. Ironically, Huck often knows better than the adults around him, even though lacks a good family&education.Huck represents natural life through his freedom of spirit, uncivilized ways, and desire to escape from civilization.And throughout the novel,Twain seems to suggest that the uncivilized way of life is more desirable and morally superior. Twain suggests that civilization corrupts, rather than improves, human beings.Money:Huck has over six thousand dollars to his name but he demonstrates a relaxed attitude towards wealth, and because he has so much of it, does not view money as a necessity, but rather as a luxury.








43. Heminhways The old man and the sea as a novel about undefeated.The Old Man and the Sea, published in 1952 had a great success.This novel is built upon the greatest abstractions-love&truth&honour&loyality&pride&humanity.And here H.speaks of the proper methods of attaining&retaining these virtues. The Old Man and the Sea is a story about graet battle between an old, experienced fisherman and a giant marlin said to be the largest catch of his life.The fisherman,Santiago,has gone 84 days without catching any fish at all.He has a young friend,named Manolin,but the boy is forbidden to communicate with S.for him being unsuccessful fisherman but the boy still takes care of him.In the end S.is lucky to catch a huge marlin with which hes struggling for 2 days&nights.But on the way to home sharks attract the fish,leaving a skeleton consisting mostly of its backbone, its tail and its head.Everybody is surprised to see such a big skeleton.Though the fish is eaten,but still S.has won the battle.Despite being a relatively short work, the novel is filled not only with drama but with the parable of one man's perseverance through the hardest of times.Santiago is one of the brightest examples of an individual possessing courage that is necessary to get through the triumphs and tragedies that life(sea)presents.Alone in the sea,S. continuously struggles to find hope in actually hopeless situations. The old man exemplifies Hemingway's ideal of what he calls "grace under pressure,"coz.S.overcomes all the obstacles presented by the sea.S.doesnt cease struggling untill he wins.Relying on memories of his youth,news of the graet sportsman's recovery from injury,and thoughts of the boy,S.finds physical&moral power that he carries on throughout the story.During the long struggle between man and fish the old man begins to recognize a bond between he and the marlin, repeatedly referring to it as his brother. Id say S.feels sympathy towards the fish.The fish serves as a metaphor reflecting the old man's emotional and physical state. When the sharks attack the dead marlin hanging off the side of the skiff,the old man fights them off as if they were attacking him. Only when the marlin is entirely eaten S. gives up.The old man seems to fail,the sharks have taken his prize but they couldnt take his inner power and moral strength.S.s prize is the words of one fisherman about the marlins skeleton: "bigger than he had ever heard of".So the old man has actually triumphed in spite of his loss.Not managing to bring the fish back, S.fights with dignity.He endures and successfully survives his supreme ordeal, fighting the timeless battle of man vs. fate, with honor by remaining resilient in the face of triumph and tragedy.













44. E. Hemingway as a short story writer.Short stories by H.are studied in schools&colleges.Hes one of the most brilliant writers of his time.The importance of including H in American Literature anthologies cannot be overestimated.He broke new literary ground when he began publishing his short stories.His life had a crazy tempo and yet he found time to write novels and stories that feature men and women facing both death and emotional crises with grit, gumption, and grand tenacity. H's heroes are characterized by their honesty.They do not compromise.They are vulnerable but are not defined by their vulnerability.In the beginning, H.wrote about himself, and he would continue to write himself into most of his characters until his death. His first persona was Nick Adams, a young boy who accompanies a doctor to an American Indian camp and watches the doctor use a jackknife to slice into a woman's abdomen and deliver a baby boy.At that early age, Nick vows never to die. Later, he defies death and the sanity-threatening wounds(heavy knee wound) that he receives in Italy during World War I.Then he returns to the north woods of Michigan to heal his soul of the events of war. H.himself suffered a bad knee wound during the war and returned to hunting and fishing in Michigan's northern woods.In his more mature stories, such as "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" and "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber,"H. creates far more complex characters and situations for his characters. "Snows" is a story during which the main character, a writer named Harry, is slowly dying of gangrene. Symbolically, Harry is also rotting because of the poisonous nature of his wife's money. As his life goes away, he realizes that his writing talent has been ebbing away for years, as surely as his life is, symbolized by the hyena and the buzzards who wait to feast on his carcass."A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" and "Hills Like White Elephants" are examples of H's most laconic style, in which he removes himself from the role of narrator. The stories are almost wholly composed of dialogue. One must engage him or herself in the narratives and use his or her imagination to understand the emotional core of each of these stories.H's genius as an American original was evident long before he produced his novels that are today considered masterpieces of American literature. Both critics and readers have hailed his short stories as proof that a pure, true American literature was finally possible.American literature had at last come into its own. H. set the standard and the writers who came after him honored his achievement.























38.Sheila Delaney "A Taste of Honey". She wrote this book when she was about 17. The title-if you eat too much honey the taste becomes too bitter,who wants to know the taste of honey shouldn't be afraid of the bees.The idea - the life of any individual is larger than life.The play is realistic, the plot is simple.Jo isn't afraid.She realizes that her life is in her hands. Jo is brave enough to deal with life.Helen is opposed to Jo,she avoids trouble.This play became popular because it was written at a time. What strikes you as a reader is the ability of the writer to translate emotionally charged situations into a realistic and non-sentimental play. IDEA: No matter what happens you are to survive; you can adjust to any situation in life.The play has two acts, each containing two scenes.All the action takes place around a shabby, uncomfortable flat in a lodging house in a poor part of Manchester.The play focuses on the women (Helen&Jo-mother&daughter),on their problems and their attempts to cope with life.Jo accuses her mother of being indifferent and running away from problems. Peter,Helens ex-man comes to the flat&Jo tries to ruin his relationship with Helen,coz Peter isn't interested in Jo.Jo meets his boyfriend Jimmie. He is black sailor&he wants to marry to Joe.He is sexually interested in Jo.Helen tells Jo she is leaving to marry Peter. Jo accepts Jimmie's sexual advances→Jo is pregnan.She shares the flat with a young homosexual, Geof,who takes care of her.Geof and Jo get on well. Geof brings Helen back to visit Jo.But Helen and Peter leave again.Geof buys Jo a baby doll,a white doll not a black doll. Jo gets very upset&threatens to kill the baby. Helen leaves Peter to return to Jo coz Peter is flirting with younger women.Helen drives Geof out of the flat&She seems willing to help Jo.But when she learns that the baby is from a black man,she leaves again,thinking that she acts right.Jo is left or her own but she doesnt know that Geof will not return.





























17.SAMSON AGONISTEs is a tragedy & we can say that in this work Milton's poetry found its completion. "PR" is less intense, less titanic & doesn't have the dramatic vision of life. "SA" shows Milton's using of all his strength & the experience of all life&he was able to give the world a sacred tragedy.As to Samson he is the only human being who struggles against his own sin & he sinned against his God & was punished a lot. He is the only human being now who tries to imitate Cris from "Paradise Regained" in order to expiate his sin. It makes the whole trilogy one whole.
Samson is LIKE Milton. Milton's purpose was to free his country, he was blind like Samson. He had an unhappy marriage & had been delivered into the hands of godless enemy. If we look at the "SA" we can see a parallel. Milton's wife left him. Milton wanted to be a hero for his country, he tried to fight for his country & defeat the monarchy.Samson trusted Delaila, but it's not clear if he loved her. M is a hero & he wanted people to understand that country needed a character. Oliver Cromwell could be the leader. Milton & Samson are spiritually different. Samson is a philosopher who tried to interpret God's words. He mediated upon his own sins. Milton had never admitted that he's summoned it.Themes: 1) Patriotism - being sentenced to death, Samson tries to save his people. 2) the theme of sacrifice.3) theme of women, their behavior, betrayal, their role in life.This is a typical tragedy-conflict, suffering, people die or got blind. Samson-patriotic, suffers,gets blind & die in the end.Shakespeare divided his characters into 2 types - sufferers (Hamlet, Romeo) & sinner (Mackbeth, Richard the 3d). Samson is between. Murder is the sin, but he suffers for his country & is betrayed by his wife.This is a poem, in which we see strong spirit. The poem has little excitement&it depends on delicate psychological ideas & accents. Here Milton once again show: that he is not defeated. This gives dignity to his verse & splendor to the ideas the verse expresses.Milton is the last Renaissance poet, who could embrace the vision of the epoch.


























23.Robert Burns(1759 -1796) was a poet and a lyricist. He is regarded as the national poet of Scotland, and is celebrated worldwide. He is the best-known of the poets who have written in the Scots language, although much of his writing is also in English.He is regarded as a pioneer of the Romantic movement and after his death became an important source of inspiration to the founders of both liberalism and socialism.His poems and songs that remain well-known across the world today, include A Red, Red Rose, To a Louse, To a Mouse.His themes included republicanism (he lived during the French Revolutionary period) and Radicalism,class inequalities, gender roles, poverty, sexuality. Burns and his works were a source of inspiration to the pioneers of liberalism, socialism and the campaign for Scottish self-government, and he is still widely respected by political activists today, ironically even by conservatives and establishment figures because after his death Burns became drawn into the very fabric of Scotland's national identity. To a Lousewritten in 1785.This is one of the most remarkable of Burns poems.The poem is alive with bright descriptive touches and embracing humour.The opening with its exclamatory suddenness, carries us right into the situation: [Ha! whare ye gaun, ye crawlin ferlie!Your impudence protects you sairlie I canna say but ye strunt rarely Owre gauze and lace Tho' faith, I fear, ye dine but sparely On sic a place].Not only do we see the louse crawling in the unconscious lady's bonnet but we see the poet himself watching it with exaggerated indignation. A note of social satire creeps in as the poem continues:[Ye ugly, creepin, blastit wonner Detested, shunn'd, by saunt an' sinner How daur ye set your fit upon her Sae fine a Lady! Gae somewhere else and seek your dinner On some poor body].The theme is developed at some length.The contrast between the vulgarity of the louse and the social pretensions of the lady on whose bonnet it is creeping produces ever greater mock outrage on the poet's part until he finally, with effective abruptness, drops the pose of the disturbed onlooker and turns to address the lady herself. As soon as she is named - by the simple country name 'Jenny' - she ceases to be a fine lady and becomes just a girl to whom the poet is addressing a friendly remark. The note of amusement is not dropped, but it has become kindly:[O Jenny, dinna toss your head etc An' set your beauties a' abread Ye little ken what cursed speed The blastie's makin' Thae winks and finger-ends I dread Are notice takin].And so the poem ends on a simple proverbial note:[O wad some Pow'r the giftie gie us To see oursels as others see us It wad frae monie a blunder free us An' foolish notion What airs in dress an' gait wad lea'e us An' ev'n Devotion].This last verse contains the often quoted lines and shows Burns depth of understanding of human nature.
















46.Poe's innovations in poetry and fiction.
Edgar Allan (1809-1849),an amer.writer,known as a poet & critic but most famous as a master of short-story form, especially the psychological horror tale. He refined the short story genre and invented detective fiction. Many of his stories prefigure the genres of science fiction horror&fantasy.Both his poems & his tales are mysterious &produce a haunting effect.Many of the stories express abnormal states of mind&mad obsession. Poe's verse was very musical & strictly metrical. His best known poem is "The Raven". In this poem, the haunted, sleepless narrator, who mourns the death of his "lost Lenore" at midnight, is visited by a raven that perches above his door&repeats the poem's famous refrain, "nevermore." The poem ends in a frozen scene of death-in-life. Poe's turn to prose was prompted by his need to earn the living. He became the editor of the "southern literally messenger" after winning a prize for his tale "Ms found in a bottle".His success was immediate.He tried very hard to discover the internal laws which produce the most impelling effect.He turned to the supernatural and made it his material.He turned to pseudo sciences of the day and tried to find the subconscious.To explore the exotic and strange aspect of psychological processes, relied on madness and extreme emotion. accurately described the underside of the American dream,showing the price of materialism and excessive competition-loneliness, alienation, and images death-in-life."The Fall of the House of Usher" (1939).The story's narrator is summoned by his boyhood friend Roderick Usher to visit him during a period f emotional distress. The narrator discovers that Roderick's twin sister, Madeline, is also sick. She takes a turn for the worse shortly after the narrator's arrival, and the men bury Madeline in a tomb within the house. They later discover, to their horror, that they have entombed her alive. Madeline claws her way out, collapsing eventually on Roderick, who dies in fear.Though his char-rs are very much lifelike at the same time they become a system of symbols that characterize the state of humanity at times of terrible trials. This happens because as a writer never loses control. His early tales take their form from the sequence of events. In later tales the writer becomes very precise and deliberate in laying brick upon brick. himself described his stories as arabesque, grotesque, rational. He did it to indicate the diversity in his intentions. So in his arabesque stories horror or other emotion give the story its power. In the grotesque tales the effect is achieved by ironic humor. In his rational stories the effect comes from the use of rational analysis and reconstructing a series of events in the best manner of association psychology. was the master of the new form, new short story, the story of psychological effect.

















45.Irving started his career in the early 19 century. His personality made him the natural center for a little group of readers in NY. Ir earned his living by writing & was very much successful,so he tried his hand practically at any genre except poetry. He wrote essays, edited some papers. Through friends, he was able to publish his Sketch Book  simultaneously in England and America, obtaining copyrights and payment in both countries. "Rip Van Winkle-one of the best stories.Its full of humorous national details. So Rip Van Winkle,a villager,lives in a nice village at the foot of NY's Catskill Mountains. An friendly man whose home & farm suffer from his lazy neglect, he is loved by all but his wife. Once he escapes his wife by wandering up the mountains. After encountering strangely dressed men, rumored to be the ghosts of Henry Hudson's crew[an English sea explorer and navigator], who are playing nine-pins, & after drinking some of their liquor, he settles down under a shady tree and falls asleep. He wakes up twenty years later and returns to his village. He finds out that his wife is dead & his close friends have died in a war or gone somewhere else. He immediately gets into trouble when he hails himself a loyal subject of King George III, not knowing that in the meantime the American Revolution has taken place. An old local recognizes him& Rip's now grown daughter eventually puts him up. As Rip resumes his habitual idleness in the village, & his tale is solemnly believed by the old Dutch settlers, certain hen-pecked husbands especially wish they shared Rip's luck. Ir remained in the history of Am lit-re as the 1st Am writer who could capture the spirit of the nation & at the same time he did it against the English background of European culture. Am lit-re couldn't develop properly because of lack of folklore. Rip Van Winkle and his wife became the 1st 2 personages of Am folklore.No writer was as successful as Ir at humanizing the land endowing it with a name and a face and a set of legends.His works may be seen as his devoted attempts to build the new nation's soul by recreating history & giving it living, breathing, imaginative life. like Ir evoked a sense of the past and gave it a local habitation.C is one of the greatest am writers who managed to write a succession of novels - "leatherstocking series" - about the frontier scout who unlike many Americans of that time felt the deepest respect for the Indians, arrested the Eng colonist & could live in peace with them. invented 2 more char-rs of Am folklore: honest frontier scout & his friend,the brave Indian. became known all over the world for his "series". His novels were a blend of adventure stories & social criticism. He wrote social critics.He criticized the shortcomings of democracy in his own country. His fiction was a success not only with the contemporaries but with the generations to come due to the char-rs of his novels - Natty Bumppo(NB) & Chingachgook.His stories were quite recent but he managed to make them sound historic. Romantic realism - trend adhered to.C's social criticism was a part of his conception of romance.He registered both Am achievements & problems.
He was the Ist writer to realize that the new lit-re must be created from the feeling to the form. He made clear the job that must be done before Am could have the lit-re of its own.













47.Moby-Dick is a novel  published in 1851 by American author Herman Melville. The story tells the adventures of the sailor Ishmael and his voyage on the whaleship Pequod, commanded by Captain Ahab. Ishmael soon learns that Ahab seeks one specific whale, Moby Dick, a white sperm whale of tremendous. In a previous encounter, the whale destroyed Ahab's boat and his leg. Ahab intends to take revenge.
In Moby-Dick, Melville employs stylized language, symbolism, and metaphor to explore numerous complex themes. Through the main character's journey, the concepts of class and social status, good and evil. Moby-Dick is a symbolic work. Major themes: obsession, religion, revenge, sanity, hierarchical relationships, and politics. All of the members of the crew have biblical-sounding or descriptive names, and the narrator deliberately avoids specifying the exact time of the events.The white whale has also been seen as a symbol for many things, including nature and those elements of life that are out of human control. The Pequod's quest to hunt down Moby Dick itself is also widely viewed as allegorical. To Ahab, killing the whale becomes the ultimate goal in his life, and this observation can also be expanded allegorically so that the whale represents everyone's goals. Furthermore, his vengeance against the whale is analogous to man's struggle against fate.Ahab's pipe is widely looked upon as the riddance of happiness in Ahab's life. By throwing the pipe overboard, Ahab signifies that he no longer can enjoy simple pleasures in life; instead, he dedicates his entire life to the pursuit of his obsession, the killing of the white whale, Moby Dick. A number of biblical themes can also be found in the novel. The book contains multiple implicit and explicit allusions to the story of Jonah, in addition to the use of certain biblical names."Call me Ishmael," Moby-Dick begins, in one of the most recognizable opening lines in American, or indeed English-language, literature. The narrator, an observant young man setting out from Manhattan, has experience in the merchant marine but has recently decided his next voyage will be on a whaling ship. On a cold, gloomy night in December, he arrives at the Spouter-Inn in New Bedford, Massachusetts, and agrees to share a bed with a stranger. When his  mate returns very late and discovers Ishmael beneath his covers, both men are alarmed, but the two quickly become close friends and decide to sail together from Nantucket, Massachusetts on a whaling voyage.The ships officers direct the early voyage while Ahab stays in his cabin. The chief mate is Starbuck, a serious, sincere Quaker; second mate is Stubb, cheerful and always smoking his pipe; the third mate is Flask, short and stout but thoroughly reliable. Each mate is responsible for a whaling boat, and each whaling boat of the Pequod has its own pagan harpooneer assigned to it. Some time after sailing, Ahab finally appears on the quarter-deck one morning, an imposing, frightening figure whose haunted visage sends shivers over the narrator. One of his legs is missing from the knee down.Soon gathering the crewmen together, with a rousing speech Ahab secures their support for his single, secret purpose for this voyage: hunting down and killing Moby Dick, an old, very large sperm whale. Only Starbuck shows any sign of resistance. The first mate argues repeatedly that the ships purpose should be to hunt whales for their oil, with luck returning home profitably, safely, and quickly, but not to seek out and kill Moby Dick in particular and especially not for revenge. Eventually even Starbuck acquiesces to Ahab's will.Soon word is heard from other whalers of Moby Dick. The jolly Captain Boomer of the Samuel Enderby has lost an arm to the whale. Next they meet the Rachel, which has seen Moby Dick very recently. As a result of the encounter, one of its boats is missing; the captains youngest son had been aboard. The Rachel's captain begs Ahab to aid in the search for the missing boat, but Ahab is resolute. The Pequods captain is very near the White Whale now and will not stop to help. Finally the Delight is met, even as its captain buries a sailor who had been killed by Moby Dick.
The next day, the Pequod meets Moby Dick. For two days, the Pequod's crew pursues the whale, which wreaks widespread destruction. On the third day, Moby Dick rises up to reveal Fedallah tied to him by harpoon ropes, clearly dead. Moby Dick destroys the boats and kills Ahab. It then sinks the Pequod, dragging almost all the crew to their watery deaths. Only Ishmael survives, clinging to Queequegs coffin-turned-life buoy for an entire day and night before the Rachel rescues him.












27. The development of Ch.Dickens power of improvisation and plot-building In Great Expectations (1860-1861), Dickens returned to the theme of a youth's discovery of the realities of life.  An unknown person provides the young hero Pip with money. Pip's pride is shattered when he learns the source of his "great expectations."  Only by painfully revising his values does Pip reestablish his life on a foundation of sympathy, rather than on vanity, possessions, and social position.  When Dickens started his thirteenth novel , Great Expectations, in 1860, he was already a national hero. The idea is that one must search beyond material wealth and social standings and look within themselves for happiness becomes the major theme in Great Expectations. Though not considered as autobiographical the character of Pip represented a Dickens who had learned some hard lessons in his later life. Great Expectations was deliberately more humorous than its predecessor The greatest difference between Great Expectations and Dickens' earlier novels is the introduction of dramatic psychological transformations within the lead characters, as opposed to characters that are changed only through their circumstances and surroundings. The story of Pip is -- a story that centers on the education or development of the protagonist -- and we can follow closely the things that Pip learns and then has to unlearn. For many years, Pip had believed that he and Estella were destined to be married, but now his hopes and expectations are just beginning to fade. When Pip finally learns that Abel Magwitch, not Miss Havisham, is his benefactor, his unrealistic expectations cease and his genuinely good nature begins to overcome the negative traits that he had developed. Also, he realizes that he was at fault for his nonrealistic hopes. During a visit to the Satis House, Pip is able to hold no harsh feelings toward Miss Havisham for the misfortunes of his life. Pip's positive characteristics are also evident in his treatment of his benefactor, the convict Magwitch. Pip puts himself through great personal risks and inconveniences to save Magwitch. He is unsuccessful in fleeing the country with Magwitch, Every day, Pip visits him. Soon after Magwitch dies, Pip becomes seriously ill. When he recovers, he learns that Joe had traveled to London to care for him. As he continues to nurse Pip back to good health, Joe remains formal and awkward around Pip, as he had acted while visiting Pip in London several years earlier. Joe unexpectedly leaves London to return to the forge, Pip follows him as soon as he is physically able. At the forge, Pip no longer shows any feelings of shame or arrogance because he is now content and cheerful in his old surroundings. At the conclusion of Great Expectations, the reader most likely finds Pip's fate acceptable and enjoyable. Earlier in his life, he had changed from an innocent, caring boy into an arrogant young man as a result of his nonrealistic hopes and expectations. However, when those expectations come to an end, so do his undesirable traits, as he is shown to be a truly good-natured person. Therefore, it is fitting that, in both of Dickens' final episodes, Pip is happy and content with his life.





















9  CANTERBURY TALES
The tradition Eighty-five manuscripts of The Canterbury Tales have survived, of which fifty-five contain a reasonably complete version of the work.  This is a clear indication of its popularity in late medieval England.  It was, in 1478, one of the first works in English that was printed; it was printed twice by William Caxton and often reprinted by his successors.  Many of the versions differ radically in the order of the tales, but the order of the Ellesmere manuscript (p17-18) is considered as the most nearly satisfactory.The Greatness The Canterbury Tales is Chaucers masterpiece.  It was not because of his idea to write a series of stories related by different members of a group. Chaucer used the technique of the frame story in a different way: he stressed mobility. The on-the-road telling of stories, as was Chaucers frame, is in fact less realistic.  Mobility, both geographic and social, is a key motif, just as it was in the changing social and economic standards of Chaucers age.Chaucer collected men and women of different ages and social classes, whom he made tell a story.  He intended to give each pilgrim a story which was typical for him or her. Chaucer did not only give us a collection of stories and a collection of people, but he linked the stories by having the characters argue and insult each other.  By doing so, Chaucer makes the frame story grow in relation to the tales themselves.  The use of a frame story also allowed Chaucer to use a lot of literary genres: courtly romance, fabliau, saints life, allegorical tale, beast fable and mixtures of these genre.The next element of greatness lies in Chaucers observation and description,
especially in the prologues.  Chaucer recorded all the possible details of his characters.
Another element of greatness lies in Chaucers use of irony and sarcasm.  The Prologue of The Wife of Bath can be seen as one large joke, but in fact it is anything but to laugh at.  Chaucer used the French rhymed ten-syllable couplets in an outstanding way.  He added musicality to the rhymescheme by avoiding monotony by occasionally using a spondee (two equal syllables) instead of a iambus (long-short), by adding a syllable or by shifting the caesura to a different position. 
The Canterbury Tales ends with Chaucer's Retraction, in which he ask forgiveness for his writings that concern wordly vanities, and remembrance for his translation of the Consolation and his other moral and religious works.  Chaucer did not complete the full plan of the book: the return journey from Canterbury is not included and some of the pilgrims do not tell their stories.
THE WIFE OF BATHS TALE Summary The wife of Bath tells the tale of a young knight who, after the rape of a maiden, must search the answer to the question, "what is it that women most desire?" The knight has one year to find the answer and return to King Arthur's court, or else he will be sentenced to death.The knight's journey does not go well. he does not get a good answer.  Desperate, he starts his return to Arthur's court, when he sees a group of young maidens. As he approaches, they disappear leaving an old woman. She says that she has the answer to his question, but will only state it before the queen, and on the condition that he does whatever she asks of him. The knight agrees.In the presence of the queen, the old woman says that what women desire most is sovereignty over their husbands. Nobody disagrees with her answer, and the old woman asks the knight to marry her.  The knight agrees. On their wedding night, the knight is despondent over what he has gotten himself into.  The old woman lectures him on the trivial nature of appearances, then gives the knight a choice: ugly and faithful or beautiful but unfaithful. The knight leaves the decision up to her. The old woman rewards him by giving him both.
Characterisation The wife of Bath desires only a few simple things in life.  She likes to mirror herself, through her stories, which in some way reflect the person who she really is. This is all proven through the many ways she portrays her characters. The wife of Bath desires the obvious in life, but what she desires most is being more powerful than her husband.  In a relationship, she wants to be the dominant of the two, the one who is in control and takes the decisions in the relationship.  This is shown in her tale when no women in the assembly disagreed with the knights reply (and certainly not the old hag).  There is another example of the desire for power of the women in a relationship.  The old hag, after marrying the knight, gives him a choice: that she stays ugly and faithful or to become beautiful and unfaithful. The knight leaves the decision to her and the hag becomes both beautiful and faithful.  The knight thus gives her power and he is rewarded for this.   relationship.  The old hag, after marrying the knight, gives him a choice: that she stays ugly and faithful or to become beautiful and unfaithful. The knight leaves the decision to her and the hag becomes both beautiful and faithful.  The knight thus gives her power and he is rewarded for this.

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EXAMINATION ISSUES

1. The peculiarities of the art of literature. What distinguishes it from any other art?
2. Types and genres of literature.
3. Different approaches to literary criticism.
4. The beginnings of English literature. The works of Venerable Bede and Cædmon and other medieval poets. Old English principles of versification.
5. Beowulf as a sample of Anglo-Saxon epic. Its complex structure and imagery.
6. The development of English verse after the Norman Conquest. Fables and lyrics.
7. The peculiarities of the medieval period in Europe (feudalism, the Church and the rise of the Bourgeoisie) and its influence upon the development of English literature.
8. The peculiarities of Langlands Peter the Ploughman (form and content).
9. Chaucers Canterbury Tales as the first example of the human comedy in England.
10. The Renaissance movement in Europe. The peculiarities of English Renaissance. Drama as the main manifestation of the Renaissance spirit.
11. Shakespeares sonnets. The structure of the English sonnet as a reflection of its philosophical character.
12. The comedies of Shakespeare (any comedy).
13. Shakespeares great tragedies, devised not only for his time, but for all time.
14. John Milton as a controversial figure in literature, whose life was a drama in three acts.
15. Paradise Lost the great epic of obedience and disobedience.
16. Miltons dramatic theory and output. Samson Agonistes as a representation of belief in God and Gods law.
17. The development of the novel. Daniel Defoe: the use of detail to ensure credibility.
18. Jonathan Swifts Gullivers Travels and its allegorical implications. The use of proportion to ensure credibility.
19. Samuel Richardson the first English novelist. Popularity and oblivion.
20. Henry Fielding. Tom Jones, the Foundling - the first panorama of English life.
21. The peculiarities of the romantic movement in England. William Blake a genius, a rebel, a visionary. Analysis of W. Blakes poem Tyger.
22. R. Burns, a poet and a democrat, a romantic and a satirist. Analysis of R. Burns poem (suggested: To the Mouse / To the Louse)
23. G.G. Byron and the romantic character of his Childe Harold (Cantos 1-2) or his other early poems.
24. Byrons Don Juan a realistic novel in verse.
25. Realism as a trend in literature. Charles Dickens The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club (or his other early novel).
26. The development of Charles Dickens power of improvisation and plot-building. (Any other novel)
27. W.M. Thackerays Vanity Fair as a panorama of English life. The structural peculiarities of the novel.
28. Oscar Wilde and his theory of art for arts sake. Analysis of The Picture of Dorian Gray.
29. Oscar Wilde as a poet of erring humanity. Analysis of The Ballad of Reading Gaol.
30. R. Kipling on man and his duty. The neo-romanticism of R. Kipling.
31. Naturalism as a trend in literature. John Galsworthy as a naturalist and realist. Analysis of The Forsyte Saga.
32. Bernard Shaw and his drama of intellectual conflict.
33. J. Joyce as a naturalist and a realist. Analysis of Dubliners and The Dead.
34. The stream of consciousness as a reaction to realism and naturalism. J. Joyces Ulysses as a study of the subconscious.
35. Literature of psychology and analysis. D.H. Lawrence and his theory of the human ego. Analysis of Son and Lovers and The Prussian Officer (or any other novel and story of your choice).
36. The Angry Young Men as the drama of the common round of existence. J. Osborn and his Look Back in Anger.
37. Sh. Delaney and her play A Taste of Honey. A. Wesker and his Chips with Everything.
38. U.S. literature as a mirror of the nation history. The beginning of American literature (W. Irving, F. Cooper)
39. E.A. Poes innovation in prose and verse.
40. H. Melvilles Moby Dick, or the Whale as a symbolic reflection of mankinds essential conflicts.
41. W. Whitman a poet of democracy and brotherhood.
42. M. Twains The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn as a book for adults.
43. E. Hemingways The Old Man and the Sea as a novel about the undefeated.
44. E. Hemingway as a short story writer.

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