Translation of poetry-ways of preserving imagery
Image in poetry is a mental representation, picture of association of ideas evoked in a literary work; idea produced by the imagination; a mental picture or a figure of speech, such as a simile or metaphor. It’s a subjective picture of the world that includes an individual himself, other people surroundings and chronological sequence of actions and events.
A poetic image is a language of feelings and physical sensations-with the help of a profound image we can see, smell, and touch. That is why poetic imagery is practically always conceptual.
When we speak about the translation of images first and foremost we shoul bear in mind that deviations from the structure of images in the original can be subdivided into 2 main groups:
-peculiarities of the language material of the poem under translation eliminate the possibility to create a close syntactical variant of translation without prejudice to its artistic value;
-a translator intentionally sacrifices the closeness to the original for the sake of the rhythmics and inner development of an image, though all the images in a line can be translated easily.
One of the eternal problems is the choice of the method of translation. Poetic translation involves an unpredictable area of transformations in the target language the perception of a translator. Some transformations are not determined by interlinguistic relationship but cultural or even personal preferences on the part of the translator.
The aim of the translation is to ensure that both texts communicate the same message taking into account such criteria as faithfulness and transparency.
Elementary language images correlate with the objects of physical and social reality and form new complex images that can consist of several lexical units
-lexical transformations (poetic language is characterized by peculiar vocabulary and the choice of words depends on the demands of a poetic form with high percentage of short words) (additions, ommisions)
-grammatical transformations (changes in the gender of nouns and in various grammatical constructions (noun-verb, animal-he/she=it)
-syntactical transformations (in poetry syntactic links between image-bearing words play an important role and must be taken into consideration in the process of translation) (changes in word order, in the order of the lines and in the sentence type)