Semantic and pragmatic aspects of translations
Semiotics (the science investigating the general properties of sign systems) distinguishes the following types of relations-semantic (sign to object), syntactic (sign to sign), pragmatic (sign to man). One of the most essential requirements, imposed on translation is that the 2 texts (the original and its translation) should be semantically equivalent. In other words they should be characterized by equivalent sets of relationships between the linguistic signs and their referents. The goal of translation is to produce a text bearing the same relation to the extra linguistic situation and the original. Semantic equivalence of messages does not necessarily imply the semantic identity of each linguistic sign. Semantically equivalent utterances include not only those, made up of the semantically identical signs. As distinct form semantic relations, syntactic relations are important only at the stage of analysis since relations between linguistics signs are essential for their semantic interpretations (Bill hit Shone and Shone hit Bill). But although they may be occasionally preserved in translation, the translator does not set himself this goal. Very often syntactically non-equivalent utterances prove to be semantically equivalent: He was considered invincible-его считали непобедимым.
Pragmatic relations are superimposed on semantic relations and play an equally portent role in analyzing the original text and in producing an equivalent text in the TL. Semantically equivalent messages do not necessarily pragmatically equivalent. The phrases “he made a fifteen-yard end run” & “он сделал пятнадцатиярдовый рывок по краю” are semantically equivalent for they denote the same situation but the American reader familiar with American football extract rar more information from it than his russian counterpart who would neither understand the aim of the maneuver nor appreciate the football-player’s performance. The pragmatic problems involved in translations arise from 3 types of pragmatic relations. The relation of the source language render to the original message, the relation of the target lang receptor to the TL message & the relation of the translator to both messages.