19. The problem of translating non-equivalent vocabulary
When we come to non-equivalents we should determine what we really mean by non-equivalents. In fact these are the words of the SL which either have no equivalents in the TL or no equivalent denotator in the TL culture.
There are 2 groups:
1. Realia-words / culture-bound words (denote objects, features of national life, customs, habits, etc) E.g.: cricket, drive-in, валенки
2. Words that have no equivalents in the TL for some linguistic reason. (“Conservationist – специалист по охране окружающей среды, readership – круг читателей, glimpse – беглое знакомство”)
There are 3 ways of rendering their meanings.
1. Direct borrowing (transliteration or transcription) “mayor – мэр, know how – ноу хау, impeachment - импичмент”. Some of them are used in official documents which means the word has entered the vocabulary stuff. But we shouldn’t use such borrowings very often. It’s often better to resort to some kind of definition. (teach-in – собрание студентов и преподов универа для выражения критич мнений по соц и политич вопросам) Besides some of them may not be understood by a general reader (трайболизм – племенной строй)
2. Translation loan. (e.g.: back bencher = заднескамеечник, Houses of Common – Палата Общин, brain-drain – утечка мозгов). Often such occasional formations are adopted by the members of the TC and get the status of regular equivalents.
3. Descriptive or interpreting translation. using explanations. Free-word combinations. They are used to translate all sorts of realia, by explaining their meanings. They serve to explain the cultural peculiarities in which the realia is used. (баба-Яга – an old witch from Russian fairy-tales, landslide – победа на выборах с огромным перевесом, wishful thinking – принимание желаемого за действительное)
There are also neologisms. They may be old words, which acquire new meaning, or new words: coined or loan words. Neologisms are not registered in dictionaries. We analyze the structure and the context to understand the meaning of the word.
(*Peacenik – one who fights for peace. The suffix shows that the word is coined. “-nik” is popular since 1960-s (sputnik)
*Bust – 1)to hit; 2)to get arrested; 3)a dope bust – облава на торговцев наркотиками
*To go straight – to quit stealing or using drugs
*To cross the house – to betray the interests of the party you belong to )