15. Classification of vocabulary from the viewpoint of translation challenges.
People usually use different approaches to classify words & the most important is classification from the point of view of translation challenges.
1.Words that cannot be found in the recent English-Russian dictionaries.
Even if you find them, it’ll be difficult to choose the right meaning. (E.g.: configure конфигурировать,придавать форму. overpredict – предсказать, second source – выпущенный по лицензии, из второго источника.) For the most part they are neologisms and are built according to the normal word-building (normal affixes) e.g.: specifically – в частности, например, характерно
A semantic field of a word may be rather great.
2.False friends of the translator.
These words are always misleading. These are pairs of words which in 2 languages look or sound similar but differ in meaning. If you don’t know the translation for sure it’s better to check in the dictionary. Real international words are “electronics, algebra, etc”. Completely pseudo-international words: “complexion (не комплекция а цвет лица), commutator (не коммутатор а переключатель), etc”. Partially pseudo-international words: “elevator (элеватор – лифт)” These words are known as false friends of the translator. E.g.: original- исходный, figure- цифра, object – целью.
3.Words with a broad semantic range.
E.g.: meaningful – значимый, выразительный, многозначительный, поддающийся интерпретации; имеющий ясную цель и т.д.
4.Words with a very narrow semantic range & low frequently of occurrence.
They name very specific things and can often be not registered in the dictionary. E.g.: chore – работа по дому, ежедневные обязанности (техн:задача,функция)
5.Words that are stylistically colored & have affective connotations. 
Even in technical texts authors express their emotions e.g.:excellent,extremely