1.Speech is time – bound, dynamic, and transient. It’s a part of interaction, in which both participants are usually present. A speaker has a particular addressee. Your translation will depend upon the addressee. You should know whom you rely upon. You should be ready to paraphrase what you had said.
2The spontaneity & speed of most speech exchanges make it difficult to engage in complex advanced planning. The pressure to think while talking promotes looser construction, repetition, rephrasing, & comment clauses. Intonation & pause divide long utterances into manageable chunks, but sentence boundaries are often unclear. In some cases speech depends upon the situation. Speech is never spontaneous. It’s always prepared. If you are to translate a general conversation of informal character, you are to be prepared to all sorts of deviations & to make illogical speech logical. Use short sentences to make your speech compressed & unambiguous.
3. Bcos participants are usually in face-to-face interaction, they can rely on such extra linguistic clause as facial expression or gestures to add meaning or to get feed back. The lexicon of speech is usually vague. Use words, which refer directly to situation (deictic expressions: that is, in here etc). On the other hand words we use in oral communication are not very much precise, bcos we don’t have time to chose a word. The communicator becomes verbose, bcos we have to explain want is really meant. The job of translator is to find out the meaning out of the succession of words & formulate the utterance economically. It’s a job to give a jest of the utterance & relate it to the second interlocutor.
4.Many words & constructions are characteristic of speech. Lengthy coordinate sentences are normal, & are often of considerable complexity. Nonsense vocabulary is not usually written & may have no standard spelling. Obscenity may be replaced by graphic euphemism. Slang & graphical informality should not be used in writing. Informal speech presents lots of challenges for the interpreter. Atypical grammatical constructions cannot be avoided & should be dealt with. Obscene words should be avoided & replaced by neutral phrases. Slang is quite an obstacle. It should be avoided in oral speech, bcos it may create a wrong impression on your interlocutor.
5.Speech is very suited of social & phatic functions. It’s good at expressing social relationships & personal opinions, due to the vast range of nuances, which can be expressed by the prosody & accompanying non-verbal features. The ability to pronounce one word (phrase or sentence) with multiple information patterns.
6. There is an opportunity to rethink an utterance while it is in progress (starting again, adding qualification). However errors once spoken cannot be withdrawn (the one exception is when a sound engineer performs wonders of auditory plastic surgery on a tape-recorder of non-fluent speech). Interruption & overlapping are normal & highly audible. Its possible when speakers are in frank terms & communication is informal. But if the interpretation is official it should be remembered that the situation of rethinking, saying things again is absolutely impossible. If you’ve made a mistake don’t correct it.
7. Unique features of speech include most of the prosody. The main nuances of intonation, as well as contrasts of loudness, tempo, rhythm & other tones of voice cannot be written down with much efficiency. Every translator should to some degree possess the qualities of actor. He should be able to discover what tone is meant. Sometimes such things as gestures can help.
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