The Differences between oral andwritten forms of commun-n as viewed from a translator’s perspective
Speech Writing
1.Speech is time – bound, dynamic, and. It’s a part of interaction, in which both participants are usually present. A speaker has a particular addressee.Your translation will depend upon the addressee.You should be ready to paraphrase what you had said.   
Writing is space – bound, static, and. It’s the result of situation in which the writer is usually distant from the reader & often doesn’t know who the reader is going to be. The reader is your client & you do not know exactly what your client really needs. If your client is a specialist, then before creating a clean copy, discuss it with the client. Cooperate with your client.
2.The spontaneity & speed of most speech exchanges make it difficult to engage in complex advanced planning. The pressure to think while talking promotes looser construction, repetition, rephrasing, & comment clauses. Intonation & pause divide long utterances into manageable chunks, but sentence boundaries are often unclear. In some cases speech depends upon the situation. Speech is never spontaneous. It’s always prepared. If you are to translate a general conversation of informal character, you are to be prepared to all sorts of deviations & to make illogical speech logical. Use short sentences to make your speech compressed & unambiguous. 
Writing allows repeated reading & use of analysis & promotes the development of careful organization, compact expression with often-intricate structures. Units of discourse are usually easy to identify through punctuation & layout (arrangement of the page). You should read the whole text, get the general idea, the idea of every paragraph, compare the ideas of the paragraph with the whole text, decide which role each paragraph plays for the whole text. Then translate the paragraph sentence by sentence.   
3. Both participants are usually in face-to-face interaction, they can rely on such extra linguistic clause as facial expression or gestures to add meaning or to get feed back. The lexicon of speech is usually vague. Use words, which refer directly to situation. On the other hand words we use in oral communication are not very much precise, bcos we don’t have time to chose a word. The job of translator is to find out the meaning out of the succession of words & formulate the utterance economically. It’s a job to give a jest of the utterance & relate it to the second interlocutor.
Most writing therefore avoids the usage of deictic expressions. Writers must also anticipate the effects of time-lay between production & repetition & the problems posed by the lng, read & interpreted by many recipients in diverse settings. The rule is: THE RIGHT WORD IN THE RIGHT PLACE. The fact that the translator doesn’t have any immediate feedback nay be regarded as disadvantage; in this case the translator should use imagination in order to have a clear vision of his addressee.  The level of lng is proficiency. You should think of many recipients & chose a word, which many of them will understand. It’s easy to translate technical text bcos their characteristic feature is precision. When you start translating essays & popular articles you should be aware of lots of difficulties created by different settings. If you translate from Russian into English, you should be aware of “political correctness”.
4.Many words & constructions are characteristic of speech. Informal speech presents lots of challenges for the interpreter. Atypical grammatical constructions cannot be avoided & should be dealt with. Slang is quite an obstacle. It should be avoided in oral speech, bcos it may create a wrong impression on your interlocutor.
Some words & constructions (multiple instances of subordination in the same sentence, elaborately balanced syntactic patterns & long, often multipage sentences) are characteristic of writing. Certain items of vocabulary are never spoken (long names of chemical components). Elaborately balanced syntactic patterns are important.
5.Speech is good at expressing social relationships & personal opinions, due to the vast range of nuances, which can be expressed by the prosody  & accompanying non-verbal features. The ability to pronounce one word (phrase or sentence) with multiple information patterns.
Writing is very suited to recording of facts, communication of ideas, tasks of memory & learning. Written records are easier to keep & to scan, tables demonstrate relationships between things, texts can be read. Writing is a priceless instrument for the translator. Every translator should first learn how to take notes. When he has written a text, he should make sure that he had chosen the right meaning to develop later into a full-fledged text. He should possess all kinds of memory.
6. There is an opportunity to rethink an utterance while it is in progress. Interruption & overlapping are normal & highly audible. Its possible when speakers are in frank terms & communication is informal. But if the interpretation is official it should be remembered that the situation of rethinking, saying things again is absolutely impossible. If you’ve made a mistake don’t correct it.   
Inadequacies of our writing can be eliminated in later drafts without the reader ever knowing they were there. Written texts are edited. The translator should remember that the final target lng text is a result overlapping of several drafts.
7. Unique features of speech include most of the prosody. The main nuances of intonation, as well as contrasts of loudness, tempo, rhythm & other tones of voice cannot be written down with much efficiency. Every translator should to some degree possess the qualities of actor. He should be able to discover what tone is meant. Sometimes such things as gestures can help. 
Unique features of writing include pages, lines capitalization, spatial organization & several aspects of punctuality. Only a few graphic conversions relate to prosody, such as questions, marks & underlining for emphasis. Writing possesses much more opportunities for the translator. There are several types such as italics, bold type, and spacing. They show the importance of this or that word & attract attention. Every translator should know the punctuation rules